Terms in this set (27)
Incognito by David Eagleman (Truth, Social Construction of Reality)
Explores influnce of subconscious mind on human perception. Provides numerous ex which give us serious reason to doubt what we perceive can be called real or true due to the understanding that what we perceive is a mental construction not a reflection on what is really there
Language in Thought and Action by S.I. Hayakawa
Introduces the concepts of mental maps and the abstraction ladder, key concepts for understanding rhetoric
Understanding English Grammar by Kolln and Funk
Discusses Standard English vs. Ebonics and argues that grammar is a social norm and a class-based expectation and there is no such thing as "correct" or "incorrect" grammar
Minoans and Mycenaean
Matricarchal vs. patriarchal cultures in ancient greece (minoans are matriarchal culture, mycenaeans are "mean")
First wave fem
asserts humanity of oppressed
Second wave fem
asserts equality of oppressed
Third wave fem
asserts right to self-actualize in each individual's own way and celebrate diversity and difference thru the intersectionality of identities and experiences
Third vs second fem
Third wave feminists are the girl power feminists who believe it is okay for women to use their feminine charms to empower themselves while second wave believe those women are obejctifying themselves in eyes of men and disempowereing themselves and other owmen
Waves of resistance can also apply to...
Race of LGBTQ+ prompts
The American Dream
James Truslow Adams first used the term "American Dream" in his 1931 book, The Epic of America. He states, "The American Dream is that dream of a land in which life should be better and richer and fuller for everyone, with opportunity for each according to ability or achievement"
Economic Theory: Supply v Demand
Supply side=reduce taxes on corps and wealthy; demand-redistribute wealth to poor
John Meynard Keynes
The economist who argued that the government spending boosts the economy and the government should increase spending in times of economic decline and balance budgets during economic booms
Adam Smith and Hayek-Idea free markets are most efficient economic model and govt shouldn't intervene in economy
Socialism v Capitalism
Idea that the ownership of the means of production should be socialized and/or regulated by the govt and that wealth should be redistributed vs idea that ownership of businesses should be private and profit driven and the govt shouldn't intervene in free market
A paradigm thru whihc one views education and critical thinking in a hierarchy ranging from the basis (knowledge and comprehension) to the highest levels of evaluation and creativity. Each level must be attained before the next can be reached, making it a progressive taxonomy, not a value hierarchy
Postmodern philosopher who argues that education and media perpetuate oppression by reinfocing totalitarian notions of truth and the real which serve to promote violence within the lower classes, create us/them dichotomies among the oppressed and entrench power and wealth in the hands of the privileged classes
Argues that there are three main component of modern social control. Believe 3 mechanisms perpetuate biopower, which helps maintain social order and reduce deviance, but also helps the wealthy and powerful maintain control
What are the 3 components of Foucault's biopower?
Hierarchical Surveillance (panopticon)
The basic structure of the most logical propositions. It includes 2 premises which (if the syllogism is valid) lead inevitably to a logical conclusion: Socrates is a man, all men are mortal, therefore socrates is mortal
A paradigm of thinking that emerged during the Renaissance, which laid the foundation of modern science. It is a kind of reasoning that constructs theories which are derived from data or many specific examples/observations, as opposed to deductive reasoning which draws conclusions about specific instnaces based on general principle or axioms. The key distrinction is that while the logical process of induction suggests possible truths (theories), it does not claim them absolutely or guarantee them, as deductive reasoning attempts to do. open, black swan
The best action in any situation is that which provides the greatest good for the greatest number of people or "maximizes the good"
THe belief that what is most important is that we solve the problem or do what works rather than focus on abstract philosophical theories. That which is true and good is that which is morst practical or effecctive in a given situation
THe belief that there are some moral principles which are universal and never should be violated-it is imperative we follow them. What is good and true is absolute and universal.
The belief that human beings are morally justified in maximizing their own best interest in all situations. Charity and philanthropy are symptoms of insanity.
The belief that all human beings have dignity and value as people and that the advancement of their interests here on Earth should be paramount, without the need for divine, supernatural, or religious beliefs to explain or justify them
The original position/veil of ignorance
THe belief that morality should be determined based on an assumed ignorance of own interesting a given situation. In other words, fairness should not be based on our own self-interest but on what is best and fair for everyone regardless of their race, gender, religion, etc. Ignorance in this case is used positively, not negatively, it is ignorance of our own particular interests in favor of the good all effected parties
Unselfish devotion to others. A desire to help others with no expectation of reward or payment. Being willing to sacrifice one's own self-interest for the benefit of others. The morally right action is that which is best fore everyone else, not yourself.