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Our Chapter 18 Ethel Woods Vocab
Vocabulary for chapter 18 of AP World History: An Essential Course book, 2nd edition by Ethel Wood
Terms in this set (29)
Leader of Egyptian modernization in the early nineteenth century. He ruled Egypt as an Ottoman governor, but had imperial ambitions. His descendants ruled Egypt until overthrown in 1952.
(1853-1856) Russian war against Ottomans for control of the Black Sea; intervention by Britain and France cause Russia to lose; Russians realize need to industiralize.
'Reorganization' reforms by the nineteenth-century Ottoman rulers, intended to move civil law away from the control of religious elites and make the military and the bureacracy more efficient.
the Young Turks
The Society for Union and Progress; the best known and most influential of the protest organizations
Lord McCartney went to China as head of British diplomatic mission to get China to trade with Britain, failed when misunderstandings led to problems
a system to control forign trade which confined all trading to the port of Canton
Treaty of Nanking
Treaty that concluded the Opium War. It awarded Britain a large indemnity from the Qing Empire, denied the Qing government tariff control over some of its own borders, opened additional ports of residence to Britons, and ceded Hong Kong to Britain.
gave Britain trading advantages over all other nations
spheres of influence
Areas in which countries have some political and economic control but do not govern directly (ex. Europe and U.S. in China)
(1850-1864) A revolt by the people of China against the ruling Manchu Dynasty because of their failure to deal effectively with the opium problem and the interference of foreigners.
led the Taiping Rebellion
This program aimed to update China's educational system, diplomatic service, and military.
1899 rebellion in Beijing, China started by a secret society of Chinese who opposed the "foreign devils". The rebellion was ended by British troops.
Catherine The Great
Empress of Russia who greatly increased the territory of the empire (1729-1796)
A league of European nations formed by the leaders of Russia, Austria, and Prussia after the Congress of Vienna
a major uprising in1825 led by western-oriented army officers who sought political reform
local political councils created as part of Alexander II's reforms; gave the middle class professional experience in government but did not influence national policy
Constructed in 1870s to connect European Russia with the Pacific; completed by the end of the 1880s; brought Russia into a more active Asian role
people encouraged to voice political opinions through the expansion of universities and access to printed word
people who oppose all forms of organized government
Matthew Perry's "black ships"
ships from US to Japan who brought threats demanding foreign trade
The political program that followed the destruction of the Tokugawa Shogunate in 1868, in which a collection of young leaders set Japan on the path of centralization, industrialization, and imperialism.
cult of the emperor
a wide campaign to glorify the emperor as a symbol of Japanese power
vanguard of the revolution
a group of revolutionary leaders who could provoke the revolution in non-capitalist Russia
Russia's "official nationality"
Russian tsar Nicholas I wanted "a character of a nation only belonging to Russia". The motto, "orthodoxy, autocracy, and nationality" was the dominant ideological doctrine.
war between Great Britain and China, began as a conflict over the opium trade, ended with the Chinese treaty to the British- the opening of 5 chinese ports to foreign merchants, and the grant of other commercial and diplomatic privileges
nurse in Crimean War, brought attention to unsanitary hospital conditions, founder of modern nursing
Japanese parliament established as part of the new constitution of 1889; part of Meiji reforms; could pass laws and approve budgets; able to advise government, but not to control it.
A legislative body established by Nicholas II intended to represent the Russian people, which was ineffective as it was disbanded whenever it was critical of the czar.