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GCC Final Multiple Choice
Terms in this set (86)
When one looks at a simple mass balance of the CO₂ being emitted anthropogenically, how much is due to the burning of fossil fuels?
Water vapor increases in the air with increasing carbon dioxide primarily because...
The air warms with more CO₂, and warm air can hold more water vapor
Which phytoplankton are most efficient and important for CO₂ removal from surface ocean waters?
The stratosphere is warmed by...
Both incoming shortwave radiation and outgoing longwave radiation being absorbed by ozone
The current level of CO₂ in the atmosphere (averaged over a year) is...
Ice ages occur when...
The difference in seasons becomes less pronounced
One of the first evidences of the impact of global warming on organisms was detected...
In changes in diatom floras of arctic lakes
We emit more CO₂ from burning fossil fuel than accumulates in the atmosphere. What is the largest sink for removal of some of the excess?
Which greenhouse gas is a primary component of urban smog?
One of the major problems with the climate skeptics argument is that...
They cannot provide an alternative explanation as to why the planet has warmed
What is the single greatest piece of evidence that the unprecedented warming we have seen in the last 150 years is not just part of a natural cycle?
The earth has been in a natural cooling cycle for 6,000 years and that cooling cycle will continue for another 23,000 years
If we look at where carbon is present on earth, apart from the sediments and rocks, the largest reservoir of carbon is found...
In the ocean
What is the primary reward for a scientist publishing a research paper in a scientific journal?
Status in their field
The Thermohaline Circulation is driven by...
Formation of cold, salty, and dense water at both poles
The scientist that first proposed in 1938 that the earth was warming due to an anthropogenic increase in CO₂ from burning fossil fuels was...
A major natural, nonanthropogenic source of methane in the atmosphere is...
When the surface sea temperatures off the west coast of North America are warmer than average and surround a central gyre in the Pacific ocean of colder than average water, we can expect...
A positive forcing that contributes to warming global temperatures
Water in the atmosphere causes cooling in what form?
What is a central problem with explaining that recent global warming is just due to natural variation in the earth's climate?
Natural variation requires natural causes
Steve McIntyre is a well-known contrarian that has challenged the work of a number of climate scientists. His academic background is...
A bachelor's degree in mathematics
The end-Permian extinction event due to methane clathrate release led to the loss of...
Nitrous oxide has increased by 16% since the start of the industrial age, and most of this is attributed to...
Denitrification of agricultural fertilizers
The problem for the carbon cycle caused by the oceans becoming more acidic from carbonic acid increases is...
Calcified organisms have difficulty precipitating CaCO₃, and so draw down less CO₂ from the atmosphere
The most important of the Milankovich cycles for the periodicity of the ice ages is...
The biggest worry about the melting of the permafrost is...
The release of methane gas
During the PETM, the climate...
Rapidly warmed due to a release of methane clathrates
The primary negative climate feedback from burning fossil fuels is...
The cooling effect of aerosols (mostly sulfates)
The layer of the atmosphere that has experienced cooling in the last 100 years is the...
The oscillation in oceanic surface temperatures that alternately causes warming and cooling on a regular 20-30 year cycle is the...
Pacific Decadal Oscillation
The scientist that demonstrated that global CO₂ levels were increasing from year to year was...
Charles David Keeling
According to the GWR, the Anthropocene began...
A little over 200 years ago in the latter part of the 18th century when the Industrial Revolution began
The basis for the greenhouse effect is...
Shortwave radiation comes through the atmosphere because greenhouse gases are transparent to it, but when it is reradiated as longwave radiation, greenhouse gases in the atmosphere absorb some of it and reradiate it in all directions (including back to earth)
The probable cause of the cooling period in the 17th century known as the Little Ice Age is...
A decrease in sun spot number during the Maunder Minimum
The long-term record (800,000 years) for atmospheric CO₂ concentration is obtained from...
CO₂ trapped in air bubbles in ice cores from Antarctica and Greenland
Since 1800, the concentration of methane in the atmosphere has...
Increased by 150%
The oscillation in oceanic surface temperatures that does not occur on a regular cycle but can cause a decline in the polar vortex that brings cold polar air during winter to the northeastern United States is called the...
A natural source of CO₂ in the atmosphere is...
When did the first scientist to predict that we could warm the atmosphere by burning coal publish his prediction?
How do scientists explain the recent "hiatus" period in global warming?
It was an extended period of a negative PDO
What is the warmest year on record?
What philosophy do scientists mostly follow?
In 1998 Mann, Bradley, and Hughes created a reconstruction of global temperature anomalies in the Northern Hemisphere going back...
The Texas Congressman who wanted his own investigation of Mann, Bradley, and Hughes is...
Joe heckin Barton
The statistician who extensively plagiarized Raymond Bradley's textbook in his critique to the House of Representatives of Mann, Bradley, and Hughes in 1998 was...
In a survey of 442 glaciers, the World Glaciers Monitoring Service found what percentage of glaciers in retreat?
Why can't we get an accurate weather forecast past 20 days?
Chaos magnifies errors in climate predictions
Where are glaciers in greatest retreat?
The Amazon rain forest is expected to become dry, burn, and be replaced by tropical scrub forest with how much warming?
Four degrees warming
The Information Council on the Environment (ICE) is...
A group created by utility and coal companies to lead a campaign to convince the public that climate change was a theory rather than a fact
The SRES scenario that would lead to the most warming (about 4.5 degrees) over the next century is...
1998 was the warmest year on recording according to the Met Hadley Center in the UK and NASA (until it was beaten by 2005, 2010, 2014, 2015, 2016, and 2017). What is the contrarian response of Anthony Watts, an AM-radio presenter in California?
Actually 1934 is the warmest year on record in the USA according to the NASA data
The new RCP scenarios differ from the SRES scenarios in that they...
Only consider concentrations of CO₂ in the atmosphere, not our economic futures
According to most scenarios, when will doubling of CO₂e take place?
European heat waves similar to the one that killed people in 2003 will become fairly common with how much warming?
Two degrees warming
Where are glaciers growing most?
Coral bleaching is primarily caused by...
Prolonged exposure to ocean temperatures above a certain threshold
The SRES (Special Report on Emission Scenarios) that is characterized as "rapid economic growth with a service and information economy" is the...
The SRES that is characterized as the heterogeneous world is the...
When did the IPCC make the following statement: "It is very likely that anthropogenic GHG increase caused most of the observed increase in globally averaged temperatures since the mid-20th century."
In the first IPCC report (1990), the conclusion was that...
Warming observed was consistent with anthropogenic global warming, but not unequivocal
In 1980, the amount of error associate with a 1-day forecast was equivalent to the error in the _________ forecast we have today.
The amount of warming will be greater over...
The decrease in yearly precipitation will be greater in...
The melting of Greenland glaciers by warming ocean water causes a melting rate that is how many times faster than surface melting?
The Indus glaciers are committed to melting is the world reaches an equilibrium of how much warming?
Three degrees warming
What negative impact of climate change offsets the positive impact of CO₂ fertilization on growth of crop plants?
Sustained hot weather reduces yield of grain
Why is sea-level rise so feared by nations of the world when we will likely only see 1-2 m of sea level rise in the next 100 years?
The loss of coastal land of any use will lead to the creation of millions of climate refugees
Southern Europe will become a desert with hos much warming?
Four degrees warming
In the fourth IPCC report (2007), the conclusion was that...
It is extremely unlikely that global climate change of the past 50 years was caused by unforced variability alone
The amount of warming (in terms of temperature anomalies) will be greater over...
Currently, the contribution to CO₂eq by GHG other than CO₂ is...
The same amount as a positive forcing as aerosols that are a negative forcing
Ocean acidification would be better described as a...
Decrease in ocean alkalinity
The human health impact of climate change that has already been experienced is...
Spread of insect-vectored disease
Lubrication of Greenland glaciers that might speed glacier movement is possibly caused by...
Melt-water fed to the bottom of the ice by moulins
The SRES that is characterized as "self-reliance and preservation of local identities combined with continual population growth" is the...
If one looks at glaciers worldwide, what percentage are in retreat?
The SRES that is characterized as "rapid economic growth with increased social interaction and economic convergence" is the...
The glaciers currently experiencing growth are all...
In valleys near the ocean
Based on climate models and the majority of hundreds of runs of these models, our best estimates for warming over the next century are...
One to six degrees from pre-industrial levels
Perennial droughts in the southwestern US and northern Mexico are expected with how much warming?
One degree warming
Who called climate change "the greatest hoax perpetrated on mankind?"
James heckin Inhofe
What low-lying country has already experience storm surges that have killed over a quarter of a million people in a single storm?
How many people currently live in water-stressed countries?
By 2050, what is the maximum number of people that could be living in water-stressed basins if we achieve a B2 SRES?
What terrestrial ecosystem is currently in greatest decline in area of land covered?
The overall economic risks of climate change are equivalent to at least what percentage of world gross domestic product (GDP)?
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