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RIP THE Human Body Test
Terms in this set (82)
A body tissue that contracts or shortens, making body parts move.
Tissue that senses stimuli and transmits signals.
Tissue that functions mainly to bind and support other tissues.
Tissue that covers outside of the body and lines organs and cavities.
Levels of organization of the body
Cell, tissue, organs, organ system, organisms
process in which the product or result stops or limits the process
How do the body systems work together to maintain homeostasis?
Keep a stable temp, supply energy, bathed in fluids, cleanse waste, balance of heat gain and loss(shivering)
neurons that carry outgoing information from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles and glands
neurons that carry incoming information from the sensory receptors to the brain and spinal cord
Motor vs Sensory Nerves
central vs peripheral nervous system
Central: relays messages, process information, and analyzes info
Peripheral: receives info from environment and relays commands to central nervous system
two parts of central nervous system
spinal cord and brain
A nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system.
How does a neuron work?
parts of neuron
cell body (largest part of neuron) , dendrites, axon, axon terminal (and they connect to muscle, or nerves)
dendrites vs axon
dendrite- toward cell body
axon-away from cell body
what increases the speed an impulse can travel
Three parts of brain
Cerebrum, cerebellum, medulla
Area of the brain responsible for all voluntary activities of the body
A large structure of the hindbrain that controls fine motor skills. (Balance and coordination)
Base of brainstem; controls heartbeat and breathing
How does nervous system communicate with other parts of the body systems to maintain homeostasis?
Coordinates the body's response to changes in its internal and external
automatic response to stimulus
somatic nervous system
activities that are under conscious control
automatic nervous system
regulates activities that are automatic or involuntary
Skeletal muscle location
Attached to bones
Skeletal muscle (striation) function
Gross body movement, facial expressions, voluntary control, manipulation of environment
most skeletall muscles are controlled by the
central nervous system
Three types of muscle tissue
skeletal, cardiac, smooth
Cardiac muscle location
Cardiac muscle function
As it contracts, it propels blood into the circulation; involuntary control
Smooth muscle location
Walls of hollow organs (stomach, blood vessels)
Smooth muscle function
move food through digestive tract, control the way blood flows, and decrease the size of pupils in bright light
sliding filament theory
theory of muscle contraction;
sarcomeres shorten when thick filaments pull on thin filaments
How does actin and myosin filaments interact to control muscle contraction?
a muscle contracts when the thin (actin) filaments in the muscle fiber slide over the thick (myosin) filaments
5 functions of skeletal system
support, protection, movement, energy storage, and blood cell formation
skull, vertebral column, and rib cage
arms, legs, pelvis and shoulder area
around the bone (membrane)
Hard and dense, but not solid, bone tissue that is beneath the outer membrane of a bone.
network of tubes that run through compact bone and contain blood vessels and nerves
3 types of joints
immovable- allow no movement
slightly moveable- a little movement
freely moveable- easily moveable
Is less dense and has many cavities that contain bone marrow
What is energy for muscle contraction supplied by?
A soft tissue inside the bone that produces blood cells
strong connective tissue that supports the body and is softer and more flexible than bone
Connect muscle to bone
Connect bone to bone
barrier against infection and injury
What does the circulatory system consist of
heart, blood vessels, and the blood that flows through them
what receives the blood
Right side of the heart pumps blood from the heart to the lungs
types of blood vessels
arteries, veins, capillaries
Carry blood away from the heart
Carry blood to the heart
any of the fine branching blood vessels that form a network between the arterioles and venules.
oxygen rich blood pumped to the left side pumped to the heart
White vs red blood cells
Red: transport oxygen
White: attack foreign substances or organisms
when blood leaves the left ventricle, blood passes into a large blood vessel called the
How does the circulatory system work with other body systems to maintain homeostasis?
Brings oxygen nutrients and hormones to cells; fights infection; regulates body temp
function of respiratory system
bring in oxygen and get rid of carbon dioxide
Structures of the respiratory system
Nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchus, bronchioles, and alveoli
process of gas exchange
occurs by diffusion across the membrane of an alveolus and capillary
process of breathing
controlled by diaphragm
Respiration and circulatory system work together to maintain homeostasis?
Respiration provides the oxygen needed and removes carbon dioxide
organs in digestive system
mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, salivary glands, liver, pancreas
smooth muscle to smash and mash food into a liquid; powerful hydrochloric acid to kill bacteria
small intestine function
absorption of nutrients
large intestine function
absorption of water
passage from mouth to stomach
How are macromolecules from food converted into smaller molecules?
How does the body use the smaller molecules for energy in the cell?
the system that removes waste from your body and controls water balance ( skin, lungs, and kidneys)
Kidneys work to remove nitrogenous wastes how?
By filtering it through urs and excess water waste is taken out
Gamates (sex cells)
Sperm and egg are HAPLOID
sexual reproduction organisms receive half their genetic information from their mother and half from their father
What are hormones?
chemical messengers secreted by the endocrine glands.
How do hormones work?
Bind to specific chemical receptors on those cells
right side of heart
pumps blood to lungs ; deoxygenated
left side of heart
systemic circulation ; oxygenated
Which is carrying blood under a lot of pressure?
Arteries because they r pumping blood out not flowing blood in