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29 terms

Interest Groups Vocabulary

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Interest group
An organization of people with shared policy goals entering the policy process at several points to try to achieve those goals. Interest groups pursue their goals in many arenas
Pluralism
A theory of government and policies emphasizing that many groups, each pressing for its preferred policies, compete and counterbalance one another in the political marketplace
Elitism
A theory of government and polices contending that n upper class elite will hold most of the power and this in effect run the government
Hyperpluralism
A theory of government and policies contending that groups are so strong that government seeking to please them all is thereby weakened
Iron triangles
A mutually dependent, mutually advantageous relationship between interest groups interested in a particular policy, government agencies that administer that policy, and the congressional committees and subcommittees that handle it.
Actual group
The people in the potential group who actually join
Collective good
Something of value that cannot be withheld from a potential group member
Free-rider problem
For a group, the problem of people not joining because they can benefit from the groups activities without joining
Selective benefits
Goods that a group can restrict to those that actually join
Single-issue groups
Groups that have narrow interest, tend to dislike compromise, and often draw membership from people to new polices
Lobbying
According to Lester Milbrath, a communication by someone other than a citizen acting on his or her own behalf directed to a governmental decision maker with the hope of influencing his or her decision
Electioneering
Direct group involvement in the electoral process
PAC
Political finding vehicles created by the 1974 campaign finance reform
Union shop
A provision found in some collective bargaining agreement requiring all employees of a business to join the union within a short period
Right to work laws
A state law forbidding requirements that workers must join a union to hold their jobs
Public interest lobbies
Organizations that seek a collective good the achievement of which will not selectively and materially benefit the members or activists of the organization
Lobbyist
Someone who is employed to persuade legislators to vote for legislation that favors the lobbyist employer
Union
An organized association of workers formed to protect the workers rights
Solitary incentive
The social rewards that lead People to join a political organization
Material incentives
Money or things valued in material terms
Purposive incentive
Benefit that comes from serving the cause or principle
Social movement
A widely shared demand for some aspect of change in social order
Labor movement
An organized attempt by workers to improve their status by united action
Service sector
The tertiary sector of the economy is one of the three economic sectors, the others being the secondary sector and the primary sector.
Public interest
The public interest refers to the "common well-being" or "general welfare". The public interest is central to policy debates, politics, democracy and the nature of government
Direct technique
Lobbying and providing election support are two important direct techniques used by interest groups to influence government policy. In other words: any method used to interact with government
Indirect technique
Grassroots lobbying (also indirect lobbying) is lobbying with the intention of reaching the legislature and making a difference in the decision-making process. Grassroots lobbying is an approach that separates itself from direct lobbying through the act of asking the general public to contact legislators and government officials concerning the issue at hand, as opposed to conveying the message to the legislators directly. Companies, associations and citizens are increasingly partaking in grassroots lobbying as an attempt to influence a change in legislation
Climate control
the use of public relations techniques to create favorable public opinion toward an interest group, industry, or corporation
Potential group
A potential group is all of the people who might be interest group members because they share some common interest. A potential group is almost always larger than an actual group.