Music is the art of sound (and silence), and can be used to express both ideas and emotions.
Elements of Music?
Pitch, rhythm, timbre, texture, dynamics, and structure
How how or low a note is based on the frequency of a sound; NOT related to the volume of the sound
The way sounds of different pitches are arranged in order
The way sounds of different pitches are arranged in relation to each other.
When pitches are arranged outside outside the accepted rules of order causing an unpleasant sound; when someone plays the wrong note.
The repetitive timing or "beat" of music
How fast or slow a piece's rhythm
the way in which lines of music are divided into rhythmic units (think of measure); grouping of beats
the way notes are separated or blended together within a rhythm; may be described by staccato or legato
beats/notes are distinct and separate; reminder: smoke "stac" on a train (puff, puff, puff)
beats/notes are flowing into each other
unique sound produced by a specific instrument or voice
Traditional Instruments (categorized into what four categories?)
String, Wind (woodwind or brass), Percussion, Keyboard
the overall sound quality of a piece, affected by how voices are, or are not, combined
What types of textures?
Monophonic, Polyphonic, Homophonic, Heterophonic
one voice (melody) without accompaniment
Multiple voices, each with an independent voice (melody)
Multiple voices, one leading, and the others forming a background accompaniment
Multiple voices perfoming same melodic line with slight variations; see in Asian
the softness or loudness of a sound in terms of volume
the overall way a piece of music is arranged
Basic Techniques for Teaching Music
1) Activities that involve simple, easy-to-learn instruments (ex: drum & xylophone); drums for teaching rhythm & xylophone for teaching pitches & basic melodies 2) Easy-to-remember lyrics with limited range requirements (lowest to highest note) 3) Activities that offer opportunities for children to physicalize the music (using your body to express the music that is being sung/played)
Elements of music that is represented symbolically
ESSAY QUESTION: Why would this [piece] be a good beginning music exercise for children?
the duration for which a note or rest is held; the denominator at the beginning of a measure tells you how many beats a whole note gets
Represents 4 beats
Represents 2 beats
A Note with a . next to it
Placing a dot to the right of a note increases its value by half
Rest for 4 beats
Rest for 2 beats
Rest for 1 beat
Time signature ("meter signature")
Represented as a fraction; numerator tells us the number of beats in a measure; the denominator tells us what kind of note receives one beat (?)
Depends on where the note falls vertically on the staff ("E-G-B-D-F, Every Good Boy Does Fine"); ("F-A-C-E")
All beginning pieces given to children to sing will be within the treble clef; children's pitch normally falls within one octave found on the treble clef
ESSAY QUESTION: What is the key signature/staff signature?
Ask yourself: "What symbols are coming before the first notes?" - Determine if the piece is marked with sharps (#) or flats (b); if no sharps or flats, the key signature is C major (or A minor)
At least of the notes that's in the harmony being created is diminished (being flattened or going down)
How do you find the key signature/staff signature when a fraction is not given?
For Flats remember: "Farm Boys Eat Apple Dumplings Greedily"
For Sharps remember: "Go Down And Eat Breakfast First"
First count how many sharps/flats before counting the words in the mnemonic device to determine the key signature (10:57 TeachersTestPrep)
Western Styles of Music
Classical (orchestral), Folk (common folk passed down orally), Jazz (distinctly American; "improvisational"), and Blues (underlies modern American)
Eastern Styles of Music
Microtonal (17 steps in the Arab system; 22 steps in the Indian system) on an octave scale