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PSY 333d Final
Terms in this set (54)
cognitive development involves a sequence of 4 stages- the sensorimotor, pre-operational, concrete operational, and formal operational stages- that are constructed through the process of assimilation, accommodation, and equilibration.
The process by which children) or other people balance assimilation and accommodation to create stable understanding
birth- 2yrs; intelligence is expressed through sensory and motor abilities; use of muscles, movement
2-7 years; children become able to represent their experiences in language, mental imagery, and symbolic thought.
Concrete operational stage
7-12 years; children become able to reason logically about concrete objects and events
Formal operational stage
12 years and beyond; people become able to think about abstractions and hypothetical situations.
knowledge that objects continue to exist even when they are out of view
tendency to perceive the world solely from one's own point of view.
tendency to focus on a single, perceptually striking feature of an object or event
Idea that merely changing the appearance of objects does not necessarily change other key properties
Information- Processing Theories
A class of theories that focus on the structure of the cognitive system and the mental activities used to deploy attention and memory to solve problems.
process of attaining a goal by using a strategy to overcome an obstacle
memory system that involves actively attending to, gathering, maintaining, storing, and processing information
information retained on an enduring basis
The simplest and most frequently used mental activities
process of representing in memory information that draws attention or is considered important
process of repeating information multiple times to aid memory of it
process of intentionally focusing on the information that is most relevant to the current goal
Overlapping Waves theory
an information-processing approach that emphasized the variability of children's thinking
approaches that view children as having some innate knowledge in domains of special evolutionary importance and domain-specific learning mechanisms for rapidly and effortlessly acquiring additional information in those domains
info about a particular content area
a theory that infants have substantial innate knowledge of evolutionary important domains
theory that infants build increasingly advanced understanding by combining rudimentary innate knowledge with subsequent experiences
approaches that emphasize that other people and the surrounding culture contribute greatly to children's development
memories of ones own experiences, including one's thoughts and emotions
a class of theories that focus on how change occurs over time in complex systems
caregiving behavior that involves the expression of warmth and contingent responsiveness to children, such as when they require assistance or are in distress.
a conceptual system made up of one's thoughts and attitudes about oneself
comparing aspects of one's own psychological, behavioral, or physical functioning to that of others in order to evaluate oneself
a form of adolescent egocentrism that involves beliefs in the uniqueness of one's own feelings and thoughts
the belief, stemming from adolescent egocentrism, that everyone else is focused on the adolescent's appearance and behavior
an individual's overall subjective evaluation of his or her worth and the feelings he or she has about that evaluation
description of the self that is often externally imposed, such as through membership in a group
Identity versus role confusion
the psychosocial stage of development that occurs during adolescence. The adolescent or young adult either develops an identity or experience and incomplete and sometimes incoherent sense of self
an integration of various aspects of the self into a coherent whole that is stable over time and across events
period in which the individual is exploring various occupational and idealogical choices and has not yet made a clear commitment to them
period in which the individual does not have firm commitments regarding the issues in question and is not making progress toward developing them
period in which the individual has not engaged in any identity experimentation and has established a vocational or ideological identity based on the choices or values of others
ethnic and racial identity
the beliefs and attitudes an individual has about the ethnic or racial groups to which they belong
one's sense of oneself as a sexual being
a person's preference in regard to males or females as objects of erotic feelings
young people who experience same-sex attractions
the number of and relationships among the people living in a household
The way in which family members interact through various relationships: mother with each child, father with each child, mother with father, and siblings with one another
the process through which children acquire the values, standards, skills, knowledge, and behaviors that are regarded as appropriate for their present and future roles in their particular culture
set of strategies and behaviors parents use to teach children how to behave appropriately
effective discipline that leads to a permanent change in the child's behavior because the child has learned and accepted the desired behavior
negative stimulus that follows a behavior to reduce the likelihood that the behavior will occur again
parenting behaviors and attitudes that set the emotional climate in regard to parent-child interactions, such as parental responsiveness and demandingness
-High in demandingness and supportiveness
-High in control and warmth
-Set clear standards and limits for their children and are firm about enforcing them but at the same time they allow their children considerable autonomy within those limits
"share the toy because it is important to take turns and share what we have"
-High in demandingness and low in responsiveness
-High in control and Low in warmth
- Nonresponsive to child's needs and enforce demands through the exercise of parental power and the use of threats and punishment
"Share the toy right now because I said so!"
-High in responsiveness and low in demandingness
-Low in control and high warmth
- Responsive to child's needs and don't require their child to regulate themselves or act in
"Share the toy if you feel like it."
-Low in both demandingness and responsiveness
-Low in control and warmth
-describes parents who generally disengaged
"I don't care what you do with the toy."
Bi-directionality of parent-child interactions
The idea that parents and their children are mutually affected by one another's characteristics and behaviors
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