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HESI Admission Assessment Biology
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Terms in this set (80)
Hierarchic system of organization
Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, and species
The core theme of biology today
Charles Darwin proposed that current species arose from
a process called "descent with modification".
The steps of an experiment are
1. The first step is hypothesis, which is a statement or explanation of certain events or happenings.
2. The second step is the experiment, which is a repeatable procedure of gathering data to support or refute the hypothesis.
3. The final step is the scientific process which is the conclusion.
The most significant aspect of water is
the polarity of its bonds. Nature allows for hydrogen bonding between molecules.
The benefits of water's bonding are
1. The high specific heat and its necessary to raise the temp by 1 gram of a molecule by 1 degrees C. It allows it to resist shifts in temp and stabilizes climates.
2. It results in cohesive and adhesive properties.
3. It acts as a versatile solvent.
is the ability of a molecule to stay bonded or attracted to another molecule of the same substance. Think of a waxed car and how water tends to run together.
is the ability of water to bond to or attract other molecules or substances. Think of when water is sprayed on a wall, some of the water sticks to the wall.
When water freezes
it forms a lattice, which causes the molecules to spread apart resulting in the notion of floating.
The most important molecules are
Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.
are long chains or polymers of sugars. Its functions are storage, structure, and energy.
also known as fats, fatty acids, phospholipids and steroids.
Fatty acids has two main categories
Saturated and unsaturated.
Saturated fats has no double bonds in the hydrocarbon tail. They are detrimental to the health and are considered a solid. However, unsaturated fats have one or more double bonds and is a liquid at room temp.
are two fatty acids that are bonded to a phosphate group. The group is polar charged, though the hydrocarbon tail of fatty acids that aren't polar. Its function of cellular membranes which creates a barrier that protects a cell. They are amphipathic molecules that create a hydrophobic region between the two layers of lipids that make it selectively permeable.
are precursors to certain hormones. They are also apart of membranes.
Main function of cellular function. They consist of 20 polymers called amino acids. They are complex and are the largest of the biologic molecules. Enzymes are a type of protein that catalyzes different reactions and processes.
are the component of inheritance. Two types of molecules that are important to know are DNA and RNA.
is a molecule that contains the code necessary for replication.
is used to transfer and as a messenger in the most specific of the genetic code.
is the sum of all chemical reactions that occur in the organism. The reactions that take place within the cell are called the metabolic pathway which elevates between high and low energy levels.
is the fundamental unit of biology. There are two types of cells: prokaryotic and eukaryotic. The components of a cell are its organelles.
lack a nucleus and do not contain membrane-bound organelles.
has a membrane enclosed nucleus and a series of membrane-bound organelles that carry out the functions of the cell. Its a lot more complex.
It is the first of the organelles that contains DNA of the cell which is in an organized mass called chromosomes. Chromosomes have all the materials for the regeneration of the cell and all the functions. Every organism has a characteristic number of chromosomes specific to the particular species.
are organelles that reads the RNA that is produced in the nucleus and then translates the genetic instructions to produce proteins. They are found in two locations: Bounded ones are located in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the free ones are found in the cytoplasm. They are both interchangable and have identical structures with different roles. If a cell has a high rate of protein synthesis, it will have a large number of ribosomes.
is a membranous organelle found attached to the nuclear membrane and consists of two parts. The part that is covered in ribosomes is called the rough ER and its responsible for protein synthesis and membrane production. However, the other section doesn't have ribosomes and is referred to as the smooth ER. Its function is to detox and metabolize multiple molecules.
The function is to package, process, ship, and transports materials from the ER throughout the cell.
Intracellular digestion takes place here. It is also packed with hydrolyzed proteins, fats, sugars, and nucleic acids.
are membrane-enclosed structures that have various functions depending on the cell type. The main function is phagocytosis which uptakes food through the cell membrane creating a food storage. Another function is to store, protect, hydrolysis, and control waste disposal within the plant cell.
Mitochondria and Chloroplasts
are energy source organelles. The mitochondria are found in eukaryotic cells and are the site of cellular respiration. Whereas, chloroplasts are only located in plants and are the site of photosynthesis.
is very important to the cell. It provides protection, communication and allows the passage of substances into and out of the cell. It consists of a bilayer of phospholipids with proteins, cholesterol and glycoproteins.
there are two catabolic pathways that supports cellular energy production: cellular respiration and fermentation. Its balanced equation is: C6H12O6 + 6O2 yields 6CO2 + 6-H 2 O.
NADH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide)
is a compound that acts as a reducing agent and is the vehicle of stored energy. It is used as a precursor to produce greater amounts of ATP within the final steps of respiration.
is the first step to the conversion of glucose and its takes place in the cytosol of the cell. It produces 2 molecules of ATP, 2 molecules of pyruvate and 2 molecules of NADH.
the second step is when pyruvate is transported into the mitochondrion. This happens in the matrix of the mitochondria and for a single consumed glucose molecule there are 2 ATP molecules, 6 molecules of carbon dioxide, and 6 NADH that are produced.
Electron transport chain
is the third step with the oxidation of NADH molecules that produces oxygen and water. For every glucose molecule, 28 to 32 ATP molecules can be produced.
is a production of a glucose molecule. The chemical reaction is the reverse of cellular respiration which is 6 CO2 + 6-H 2 O + light energy yields C6H12O6 + 6O2. It consists of two stages: the light reactions and the Calvin cycle.
The Stages of Photosynthesis
The light reactions convert solar energy into chemical energy that produces ATP by absorbing light and using that energy to split water molecules to transfer electrons which create NADPH and ATP.
The second stage is the Calvin cycle that uses the molecules to produce sugar. The sugar is then polymerized and stored as a polymer of glucose. Organisms and plants use these sugars to produce energy by cellular respiration.
There are three different processes all that fall into two categories: sexual and asexual reproduction.
There are two types: the first type involves the usage of bacterial cells called binary fission. Within this process, the chromosome binds to the plasma membrane where it replicates. The cell grows and then pinches into two producing identical cells.
Asexual reproduction: Mitosis
This process of cell division occurs in five stages before pinching into two which is called cytokinesis. There are five stages: prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.
Asexual reproduction: Mitosis: Prophase
The chromosomes are visibly separate and each duplicated chromosome has two sister chromatids.
Asexual reproduction: Mitosis: Prometaphase
The nuclear envelope begins to disappear and the chromosomes begin to attach to the spindle fiber that is forming along the axis of the cell.
Asexual reproduction: Mitosis: Metaphase
The chromosomes align along the metaphase plate or the center.
Asexual reproduction: Mitosis: Anaphase
When the chromosomes start to separate. Then, the chromatids are considered separate chromosomes.
Asexual reproduction: Mitosis: Telophase
The chromosomes gather on either side of the now separating cell. This is the end of mitosis.
Is the second process that is associated with cell division. The cell pinches into two, forming two separate identical cells.
Two cells contribute genetic material to the daughter cells resulting in significantly greater variation. These two cells find and fertilize each other randomly, making it virtually impossible for cells to be alike.
A process that determines how reproductive cells divide in a sexually reproducing organism. It consists of two distinct stages: meiosis 1 and meiosis 2 resulting in four daughter cells. Each cells contains half as many chromosomes as the parent.
The chromosomes are duplicated and the cell prepares for division.
Meiosis: prophase 1
Nonsister chromatids of homologous chromosomes cross at numerous locations. Small sections of DNA are transferred between these chromosomes, resulting in increased genetic variation.
by using garden peas, he discovered the basic principles of genetics. By careful experimentation, he was able to determine that the observable traits in peas were passed from one generation to the next.
Every trait expressed in a sexually reproducing organism, there are at least two alternative versions of a gene. They can be dominant or recessive.
Alleles that are the same type.
Alleles that are different types.
A device that predicts the genotype, a combination of alleles, and the phenotype, what traits will be expressed of the offspring of the sexual reproduction. With this device, a probability of phenotypes will be produced and can be determined.
is the genetic material of a cell and is the vehicle of inheritance. In 1953, Watson and Crick described the structure. They described a double helical structure that contains the four nitrogenous bases: adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine. Each base forms hydrogen bonds with another base on the complementary strand. Adenine with thymine, guanine with cytosine. The strands can be replicated and produce identical strands.
Each gene along a strand of DNA is a template for protein synthesis. With this process, the RNA strand, complementary to the original strand of DNA is produced. The piece that is produced is the messenger RNA.
Messenger RNA (mRNA)
The RNA strand has nitrogeneous bases identical to those in DNA with the exception of uracil, which is substituted for thymine. It functions as a messenger from the original DNA helix in the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytosol or on the rough ER. The ribosome acts as the site of translation.
There are groups of three bases along the stretch of RNA and each of them codes for a specific amino acid.
Transfer RNA (tRNA)
The anticodon that is located on a unit. It carries a specific amino acid and binds to the ribosome when its codon is sliding through the ribosome. Each amino acid is bonded together and is released by the preceding molecules creating an elongated chain of amino acids.
The chain ends here. At this point, the chain is released into the cytoplasm and the protein folds onto itself and forms its complete conformation.
A cell from heart muscle would more than likely contain an unusually high proportion of
When plants do not receive enough water their photosynthetic rated drops. This is because:
Water is a raw material for the light reactions in photosynthesis.
Which of the following statements is true about the Krebs cycle and the Calvin cycle?
Both result in a net production of ATP and NADH.
Why is it important for cells to undergo mitosis?
Mitosis produces cells for growth and repair of body tissue.
Which of the following shows how information is transformed to make a protein?
What is the largest type of biological molecule?
What is the function of the stomach?
The stomach is the site of storage and digestion. It does NOT absorb any nutrients. Absorption occurs mostly in the small intestine.
It is know that the gene that codes for male pattern baldness depends on the gene for red hair. This type of interaction between alleles is known as
Epistatsis is the interaction between two alleles which have different effects in combination than individually.
The liver is an organ responsible for detoxifying the body of many harmful substances. Therefore, you might expect the liver to contain a high amount of
Smooth ER. It has a large function in detoxifying and metabolizing many molecules.
A pea plant has alleles for the dominant tall gene (T) and the recessive short gene (t). Therefore, it appears as Tt. Which of the following will correctly describe its phenotype if there is complete dominance? And which describes incomplete dominance?
Tall, Average. Because the dominant alleles is present, this pea plant will be tall despite its recessive gene in complete dominance. In incomplete, the gene must be homozygous to show one trait. Otherwise, the phenotype will be a mixture of the two alleles.
Based on the inherent properties of water molecules, what effect would a body of water have on the temperature of a climate?
Stabilize. A large body of water will have a stabilizing effect on a climate due to its high specific heat property.
Diets that contain high amounts of saturated fatty acids are linked to what disease type?
The term pleiotrophy is best defined as
One gene influencing multiple, seemingly unrelated phenotypic traits. Pleiotrophy describes conditions where one gene has multiple effects on phenotypic traits. The prefix pleio- means "many" or "more". -Trophy means "way".
All genes can be described using the Punnett Square method. True or False?
False. There are many more complicated forms of genetic expression available than the simple genetics represented by the Punnett Square.
The method by which mRNA is created is begun by which of the following processes?
Transcription is the first step in the creation of mRNA from a strand of DNA.
Which of the following activities does NOT lead to cellular energy production?
Cellular respiration leads to glycolysis while oxidative phosphorylation and both create energy by catabolism. Gluconeogenesis is the creation of sugar using energy.
Which of the following processes reduces cells originally classified as diploid to haploid?
Meiosis. It is a process of cellular division where cells begin as diploid and end as haploid.
In which phase of the cell cycle is DNA replicated?
S. The G1, S, and G2 phases are called interphase. S phase is when DNA is replicated. G1 is the growth phase and G2 is the second growth phase.
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