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22 terms

Meiosis

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four haploid cells.
Meiosis starts with a single diploid cell and produces
interphase.
A cell preparing to undergo meiosis duplicates its chromosomes during
homologous chromosomes stick together in pairs.
During prophase I of meiosis
prophase I, metaphase I, anaphase I, telophase I, cytokinesis, meiosis II.
The correct order of events during meiosis is what?
prophase I.
During meiosis, segments of nonsister chromatids can trade places. This recombination of maternal and paternal genetic material is a key feature of meiosis. During what phase of meiosis does recombination occur?
Meiosis
In a sexually reproducing organism, the division of a single diploid nucleus into four haploid daughter nuclei. produce haploid gametes from diploid cells in the reporductive organs of the parents
Mitosis
The division of a single nucleus into two genetically identical daughter nuclei. make up the mitotic (M) phase of the cell cycle
four phases for mitosis
Prometaphase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase
Diploid
In a organism that reproduces sexually, a cell containing two homologous sets of chromosomes, one set inherited from each parent; a 2n cell has 46 chromosomes
Haploid
In the life cycle of an organism that reproduces sexually, a cell contains a single set of chromosomes; a n cell has 23 chromosomes
Somatic
Any cell in a multicellular organism except sperm or egg cell or a cell that develops into a sperm or egg.
Gamete
A sex cell; a haploid sperm or egg. The union of two gametes of opposite sex (fertilization) produces a zygote
Sister chromatoids
one of the two identical parts of a duplicated chromosome in a eukaryotic cell
Tetrads
A paired set of homologous chromosomes, each composed of two sister chromatoids. Tetrads form during prophase 1 of meiosis
Crossing Over
the exchange of segments between chromatoids of homologous chromosomes during synapsis in prophase 1 of meiosis; also, the exchange of segments between DNA molecules in prokaryotes
Karyotypes
a display of micrographs of the metaphase choromosomes of a cell, arranged by size and centromere position
Autosome
A chromosome not directly involved in determining the sex of an organism, in mammals, any chromosome other than X or Y.
Sex chromosome
A chromosome that determines whether an individual male or female
Nondisjunction
An accident of meiosisor mitosis in which a pair of homologous chromosomes or a pair of sister chromatids fail to seperate at anaphase
Mutation
A change in the nucleotides sequence of an organism's DNA; mutation also can occur in the DNA or RNA of a virus; the altimate source of genetic diversity
four types of mutation
Deletion-a piece of DNA is lost, missing,etc.
Duplication- a piece of DNA is add, replicated,more than once
Inversion-a pirce of DNA breaks off and reattaches in reverse order
Translocation-two chromosomes involved a piece of DNA breaks off one chromosomes and attaches to a differant chromosomes
homologous Chromosomes
The two chromosomes that make up a matched pair in a diploid cell. They are of the same length, centromere position, and staining pattern and possess gene for the same characteristics at corrosponding loci. One homologous chromosomeis inherited from the organism's father, and one grom the mother