171 terms

AP Europe Period 2 Review: 1648-1815

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Absolutism
The idea that a monarch holds all power and governs by divine right. The monarch only has to answer to God
Divine Right Theory of Rule
Belief that God placed each ruler on the throne and therefore they owe their authority to no kne
Cardinal Richelieu
Regent for Louis XIII, set in place the cornerstone of French absolutism. Attempted to break the power of nobility by creating the intendant system
Intendants
Created under Richelieu. These were administrative officials who were hired from the merchant or banking classes to oversee the 33 districts of France and check the power of the local nobles
Corvee
Labor tax created under Richelieu placed on peasants so whenever infrastructure improvement was need, peasants could be used as free labor
Peace of Alias
This was passed under Richelieu. Restricts the rights of Calvinists in France so that they cannot pass religious laws or build fortified cities
Fronde
A series of civil wars in France by nobles against Louis XIV's . Key role in Louis XIV's decision to leave Paris and build the Versailles Palace
Louis XIV
Known as the Sun King, he was an absolute monarch that completely controlled France for 42 years however his many wars bankrupted the country. One of his greatest accomplishments was the building of the palace at Versailles.
Created Estate System
Colbertism
Revoked Edict of Nantes
Made Catholicism mandatory
War of Spanish Succession
The powers of Europe fought against a possible unity of France and Spanish, which would then upset the balance of power. It was ended by the Treaty of Utrecht.
Treaty of Utrecht
Prohibited joining of French and Spanish crowns; ended French expansionist policy; ended golden age of Spain; vastly expanded British Empire
Versailles
Beautiful but excessive palace in Baroque style that was built by Louis XIV that bankrupts the country. This controls the nobles because they are distracted by living there and Louis can easily keep an eye on them. Nobles become indebted to Louis through gambling
Colbertism
economic policy in France developed by Colbert.
Inward looking mercantilist policy. prioritises exports and imposes trade tariffs on imports. Controls manufacture and guilds to regulate domestic French production to be sold abroad. Laissez faire policies with the colonies that gives them a sense of autonomy.
Five Great Farms
An area within France that does not have tariffs so there is a free trade zone that opens up immense wealth
Commercial Code
Quality regulation of goods that was established under colbertism. This destroys the guild system and allows merchants to be sure of the quality of their goods
Boussuet
Catholic bishop who advocates for absolutism. He says that monarch's power derives from For and the king represents God on earth
Bodin
French political philosopher who was a strong proponent of absolutism during the reign of Louis XIV
French East India Trading Company
Powerful organization that helps France develop a powerful navy. Bans food exports which keeps peasants fed
Holy Terror
Louis XIV revokes the Edict of Nantes so 50,000 Calvinists (mostly skilled craftsmen) leave France and go to Prussia which leads to the rise of Prussia
James I
Son of Mary Queen of Scots, Stuart monarch who ignored constitutional principles and asserted the divine right of kings. Loves art and the theatre
True Law of Free Monarchy
James' Essay that monarchy should be an absolutist government
Charles I
King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. His power struggles with Parliament resulted in the English Civil War in which Charles was defeated. He was tried for treason and beheaded in 1649
Gunpowder Plot
Occurred in 1605 when Guy Fawkes hired a group of men to blow up Parliament when the protestant King James I and the rest of the protestants Parliament members were inside. He did it solely because he wanted a Catholic England
Petition of Rights
Limited the power of Charles I of England. He signed it so that he could get money for his war with Spain
a) could not declare martial law during peacetime
b) could not collect taxes without Parliamentary approval
c) no trial without Jury
d) No quartering of soldiers
Ship tax
Tax imposed to all costal cities in England. This is expanded to all cities but is not approved by parliament. Charles I also revives old feudal taxes
Long Parliament
Parliament that meets for a longer period of time during Charles I's reign. Insists that Charles must sign the Petition of Rights, eradicate the Star Chamber Court and end religious unity. Charles I refuses which starts the English Civil War
Oliver Cromwell
General of the Roundheads who helps them win. He is a Radical Puritan. He becomes the monarch of England after Charles I is executed
Puritan unity in England
First holocaust against Irish revolt
Raises taxes which causes the wealthy to move to France
Pride's Purge
Parliament got rid of everyone who supported the monarchy so the Rump Parliament was left
Rump Parliament
50/500 original parliament who did not support the King. They vote to have Charles I executed and he is
Navigation Act
Allows English ships to stop any ship they want to
Moral Police Force
This group enforces Cromwell's strict policies such as
1. Ale houses are close
2. Book burnings
3. Laughing is banned
4. Theatre is banned
5. Dancing is banned
6. Rules around sexuality (first time)
Charles II
Becomes leader of England after Cromwell. Restores a constitutional government. He does not punish Cromwell supporters except for the Rump Parliament
Great Plague of London
The plague kills 10,000s of people because they were not prepared for the Plague to come back. However, the blame was not placed on Charles II which shows that Europeans begin to think that Plagues are not religious
Great Fire of London
Started accidentally by a baker. Again, Charles II is not blamed because they use science to discover the source of the fire
The result of is the first fire department which is supported by the community and the beginning of urban planning (creation of zones)
Claridon Code
Passed under Charles II
This bans Puritans from government
Test Act
This prevents Catholics from taking political office. This is done to protect the government from retaliation from French Catholics
Whigs vs Tories
First moment in modern western civilization in which political parties are allowed to exist and debate over political policy
James II
Is only monarch for a short time because he tries to reinstate absolutism. Parliament says no, so he goes to the Netherlands and lives without power. This is significant because itis someone in power willingly giving up their power without conflict
William of Orange and Mary Stuart
Only co-rulers in British history. They are protestants from the Netherlands who are very intelligent and have no kids
Bill of Rights
This is the basis to every single parliament or congress in the world today
1. Parliamentary Supremacy
2. No taxation without Parliamentary approval
3. Free Debate
4. Free Elections
5. Cannot declare war without Parliamentary approval
6. Trial by Jury
7. No unreasonable bail
8. Parliament must meet frequently
Toleration Act
True and honest toleration. You may openly practice religion but that doesn't mean your community won't punish you
Penal Code
This is an extremely oppressive piece of legislation passed under William and Mary that is against the Catholic Irish. They cannot teach, be in government, or own property
Glorious Revolution
Following the English Civil War, this event involve the British Parliament once again overthrowing their monarch in 1688-1689. James II was expelled and William and Mary were made king and queen. Marks the point at which Parliament made the monarchy powerless, gave themselves all the power, and wrote a bill of Rights.
George I
A German Protestant prince who spoke no English, therefore completely let Parliament have control and started the Cabinet, which was a handful of Parliament advisers
George III
English monarch at the time of the revolution. He was the main opposition for the colonies due to his stubborn attitude and unwillingness to hear out colonial requests/grievances.
Ivan III
"Ivan the Great" The prince that made Moscow the new capital of Russia, and he overthrew the Mongols that were dominating Russia.
Ivan IV
"Ivan the Terrible" Russian ruler; cruel and tyranical; murdered nobility; extremely paranoid (killed his own son); taxed people heavily; took title of "czar"
Time of Troubles
During which the Russian nobles elected series of tsars a tried to demand their liberties. Contending factions and civil war. Finally in 1613 national assembly elected a 17 year old boy as tsar - start of Romanov dynasty.
Peter the Great
Becomes the Czar at 18 years old after Ivan the Terrible. He tours Western European countries and reforms the government off of the absolutism ideas in the rest of Europe.
Mandatory 25 year conscription in the army
Makes himself head of the church
Women are not allowed to leave the home
All sons of noble families must go to western university
Streltsy Rebellion
Noble families rebel while Peter is in Europe. When he returns he brutally crushes the rebellion and hangs their corpses on display
Table of Ranks
Peter the Great declares that every noble person Russia has to participate in the government. This checks the power of the nobles because it forces them to become government workers
St. Petersburg
Peter the Great sees Paris and he wants a grand city for the wealthy in Russia so he builds this huge city in 10 years by forcing 50,000 surfs to work for free and forcing their families to send them food
Great Northern War
This is a war between Peter the Great and Charles XII of Sweden. Peter initially fails but Charles XII becomes sick so Peter wins the warm water ports in Latvia and Estonia for Russia
Battle of Poltova
The battle in which the Russians defeat the Swedish during the Great Northern Wars
Marie Theresa of Austria
Hapsburg leader that ruled as an absolute monarch. She failed recapture Silesia from Frederick the Great, but exanded her kingdom and made it more powerful.
Fredrick William I
Solidified autocratic rule in Prussia by doubling the size of the military
French Estate System
You are legally appropriated into which estate (class) you are a part of
1st Estate
1% of the Population. Bishops and Cardinals (not priests) that come from the noble class. Legally exempt from paying taxes. Receive tithes
2nd Estate
2% of the population. The aristocratic class, have easy legal loopholes out of taxation
3rd Estate
97% of the Population. Broken down into the Bourg, the Sans Coulat and the peasants. Anyone who is not in the nobility is considered this class. Subject to a great many taxes
Bourgeoisie
Highly educated and wealthy such as doctors, lawyers and management positions. Pay taxes at 6%
Sans Coulat
Small Business owners/Working class. Have a living income and work in urban cities. They feel the strains of the economy the most because they have no direct access to food. Pay taxes at 22%
Peasants
Farmers. 85% of the population. Pay taxes at 70%
Eminent Domain
The idea that government can take private land for public use. In France, a taxation system was set up under this name in order to prevent peasants from owning land
Estates General
The French Style Parliament in that each estate gets one vote. This makes it so that the 1+2 estate always work together in the Parliament. White men who own property can vote no matter what
Cailles
Anyone can send in complaints to be read by the Estates General
Louis XVI
French monarch during the French Revolution. He creates a complete freedom of the press
Mary Antoinette
Is extremely fearful of the National Assembly so she has Louis surround his place with 18,000 troops as a precaution, this causes outrage and fear among the 3rd estate
3rd Class Petition
Working class women who bind together and write of how their daughters are forced into prostitution in order to make ends meet
Abbey Sieyes
This is a call to arms for the 3rd Estate to identify as the most important estate. This often serves as a foundation for protests in the 3rd estate
National Assembly
When the third estate believes they are locked out of the normal estates general assembly hall they meet in a tennis court and declare legitimate and legal authority. It becomes the leading legislative force in France during the Moderate Phrase
Tennis Court Oath
This declares that the 3rd Estate will not leave the tennis court until there is a new constitution for France. They want to abolish feudalism and manorialism
Storming of the Bastille
The working class storms this castle because it represents complete monarchial control, even though it is only an arms depot. The Persians steal guns and amp which shows the National Assembly has power
Danton
French revolutionary leader who stormed the Paris bastille and who supported the execution of Louis XVI but was guillotined by Robespierre for his opposition to the Reign of Terror
Declaration of the Rights of Man
This is the French Bill of Rights that only applied to white men. This grants a basic rights to white men such as freedom of speech, thoughts, religion, due process, taxation with representation.
Declaration of the Rights of Woman
This document, written by Olympe de Gouges wrote in response to the Declaration of the Rights of Man, states that Woman deserve the same political rights of men
Great Fear
Third Estate rises up against the nobility and destroys feudal residencies which caused some nobility to leave France
August Decrees
Decrees passed by the National Assembly of France in August of 1789 renouncing and abolishing most of the traditional privileges of the nobility and the clergy.
Women's Revolt
This is the first major, public revolt led by women. These women march to Versailles because they cannot feed their children
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
A document, issued by the National Assembly in July 1790, that broke ties with the Catholic Church and established a national church system in France with a process for the election of regional bishops. The document angered the pope and church officials and turned many French Catholics against the revolutionaries.
Constitution of 1791
This has a separation of powers, voting rights for property owners. This document gives all citizens equal rights (even black citizens in colonies!)
Le Chapalier Laws
Banning the right to strike which enraged the sans-coulat
Law Maxum
The government controlled the price of bread
Flight to Varennes
Louis XVI and his family try to raise a counterrevolutionary army but they are caught and become prisoners of the Parisian mob
Declaration of Pillnitz
This stated that Austria would get involved if France is not returned to its old regime ways
Assignats
Currency that the National Assembly prints in excess in order to pay for their debts. This makes the money worthless and causes huge inflation
Reactionaries
Nobility that leaves France during the Great Fear and go to Prussia and Austria. This puts a huge pressure on these countries to do something about France
Brunswith Manifesto
Prussia says that if harm comes to the king, the people will be attacked.
Storming of the Tuleries
Considered the turning point from the moderate to radical phase of the French Revolution. The working class storms the castle and over a thousand people are killed
September Masacre
12,000 prisoners are moved from one prison to another. A rumor spreads that these prisoners have been collaborating wit the king so they are butchered by the working class
France-Austria War
France declares war on Austria thanks to the Pillnitz Decree. Neither country has the financial ability to back this war but they both fight and France wins and gains territory
Jacobin
Radical republicans during the French Revolution. They were led by Maximilien Robespierre from 1793 to 1794.
First Coalition
An alliance of Austria, Great Britain, Netherlands, Prussia and Spain which was organized against Fraance
Wars of the French Revolution
War against Austria that leads to National Conscription for the first time
National Convention
New representatives are elected and this takes over as the parliamentary system during the radical phase
Maximilien Robespierre
He becomes the de facto speaker for the National Convention. He is known as a the champion for the working class. He executes Louis XVI and institutes the first republic in France
National Conscription
France uses nationalism to get men to fight for free. Every male adult in France has to fight in the war. This is the first time this is invoked in Europe and it allows France to win the war
Government Cleansing
Radicals kill all moderate members of government. Or moderates escape
Committee of Public Safety
This is set up by Robespierre in order to rule over everything with no checks to its power
Reign of Terror
This was the period in France where Robespierre ruled and used revolutionary terror to solidify the home front. He tried rebels and they were all judged severely and most were executed. Over 20,000 people were executed
The Republic of Virtue
An attempt by Robspierre to de-Catholize France
Thermidorian Reaction
Robpierre installs an absolutist regime with no representation. However, he realizes he has gone too far so he tries to kill himself in the bathtub, however, he is unsuccessful so he is dragged out of the tub and beheaded bleeding and naked.
The Directory
The five-man executive committee that ruled France in its own interests as a republic for four years after Robespierre's execution and prior to Napoleon's coming to power
Napoleon
A French general, political leader, and emperor of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Bonaparte rose swiftly through the ranks of army and government during and after the French Revolution and crowned himself emperor in 1804. He conquered much of Europe but lost two-thirds of his army in a disastrous invasion of Russia. After his final loss to Britain and Prussia at the Battle of Waterloo, he was exiled to the island of St. Helena in the south Atlantic Ocean.
Coup d'état of Brumaire
When Napoleon returns from his Egyptian Campaign, Abbey Sieyes is so impressed with his efforts that is is given control of a part of the coup against the French Government
Consulate
Napoleon establishes himself as the First Consulate for life instead of Sieyes
Concordat of 1801
This is the agreement between Pope Pius VII and Napoleon that healed the religious division in France in which the palpacy renounced claims over church property and Napoleon was allowed to nominated bishops
Code Napoleon
The codification and condensation of laws assuring legal equality and uniformity in France
Became a model for codes of law in many European countries
Bank of France
Napoleon establishes this and it is still around today. It collects and distributes taxes fairly, no one is exempt
Confederation of the Rhine
Created by Napoleon, it was a loose alliance of German states that ended the Holy Roman Empire after defeating Austria. This abolished feudalism and awakened German nationalism
Legion of Honor
People have to be able to pass a test in order to become a military officer in France
Emperor of France
Napoleon holds a legitimate election for emperor and overwhelmingly wins the title. He holds a massive coronation and crowns himself in order to slow that he alone has the power to give himself power
Neo-Classical Art
Art that Napoleon Fosters
Used as propaganda and often has classical themes
Jacques-Louis Davi
An artist who works for Napoleon to create Propaganda
-Death of Marat
-Napoleon crossing the Alps
Napoleon Crossing the Alps
Shows Napoleon as idealistic, brave, a great leader
Davi
Death of Marat
Connects Napoleon's empire to the roman empire
Davi
University of France
Equivalent to the Department of Education in America. This oversees efforts to supply history lessons to the public
Police State
This secret police force quietly imprisons political dissidents until there are only 4 remaining newspapers left
2nd Coalition
Austria, Britain Prussia and Russia try and fail to defeat France
3rd Coalition
Austria, Russia, Prussia, and Great Britain joined forces to defeat France (they do)
Trafalgar
The British barely beat Napoleon in this battle so he cuts off Britain as a trading partner which devastates the French economy
Russian invasion
Russia refuses to accept continental law so France goes to war with them. Russia practices Scorched Earth military strategy so they destroy all of France's supply lines until his supply line is 2,000 miles
Because of this 500,000 men die from hypothermia and starvation
The Continental System
After Trafalgar, France destroys all trade with Britain which destroys the French economy. He coerced Russia, Denmark, Prussia, Portugal and France to join him but this is unsuccessful
Peninsular Wars
Joseph of Spain who is Napoleon's brother is especially cruel which causes widespread revolt through Portugal and Spain. Britain funds guerrilla warfare.
100 days
Period of time when Napoleon returned to France a year after his exile to Elba and restored himself as emperor for a few months. He was defeated at the Battle of Waterloo
Battle of Waterloo
this was the battle that Napoleon lost after his return from Elba that ended his reign as French ruler
Toussaint L'Ouverture
First leader of the Haitian Revolution, a former slave (1743-1803) who wrote the first constitution of Haiti and served as the first governor of the newly independent state.
Women's Jacobin Society
A member of a democratic club established in Paris in 1789. They were the most radical and ruthless of the political groups formed in the wake of the French Revolution, and in association with Robespierre they instituted the Reign of Terror in 1793-1794
Congress of Vienna
Meeting of representatives of European monarchs called to reestablish the old order after the defeat of Napoleon.
Age of Enlightenment
Weakening of the monarchy coupled with the rise of a powerful and very wealthy nobility. Characterized through Freedom of Expression, Constitutional Government, Religious Toleration, Reason Rationalism and Optimism
Reason Rationalism
The thought that religious and political policy need to pass rational thought. Trying to apply rationality to everything
Natural Law
Created by Isaac Newton. Everything in nature has been discovered. Natural principles are absolute and in science we must learn to understand what has already been discovered
Baruch Spinoza
Believed in an impersonal mechanical universe. Denied Free will. one of the first ardent athiests
Humanitarianism
The beginnings of this movement are started in the Age of Enlightenment through Cesare Beccaria
Cesare Beccaria
Considered the father of Humane law. He determines through research that torture does not lead to accurate information and that capital punishment does not deter crime. He believes that punishment should be used to deter crime and reform the criminal and should be quick and fast
Laissez-Faire
Hands off government in financial business deals.
Printing Culture
In 1700, 10% of literature is secular, in 1790, 90% is secular
Coffee Houses
These play a huge role in the Age of Enlightenment. Come from the ottoman empire to Europe. They are extraordinarily expensive so they are a status symbol where aristos can go and talk about ideology.
Thomas Hobbes
A British Philosophe who believes that humanity is awful and that Absolutism is the solution to Humanities problems because man has no capacity for self-government
Levianthan- A book that says the government is a kind of monster
John Locke
Philosophe who Believes that man is naturally wonderful and friendly. It is our life experiences that determine who we are. Believes in a constitutional monarchy. Life liberty and property.
Two Treatises on Government
Written by John Locke. This says that men have the Natural Right to life, liberty and property. If the Government fails to protect our natural rights, the people have the power to overthrow the government.
Voltaire
"Candide" Philosophe who views institutionalized religion as a bad thing. He believes in Freedom of Expression for the aristocracy. He believes that the common people are incapable of governing themselves.
Baron Montesquieu
"Spirit of Laws". Defined theory of separation powers as well as checks and balances.
Jean Jacques Rousseau
People are inherently unequal, creates the noble savage idea, materialism is the root of evil in society, the majority should control a nation, Alienation
Thomas Paine
"Common Sense". Advocated deism and progress and the idea of an improved society through natural laws
Social Construct or The General Will
The idea by Rousseau that states that the ideal society can be created if people can work together and create a commune without government
Denis Diderot
French Philosophe who loves collecting information so he creates the first Encyclopedia, Encyclopedie. It is oppressed by the french monarchy because it includes information about oner governments in the world. He is saved by Catherine the Great of Russia and is placed in charge of her personal library
Philosophe
Writers during the Enlightenment and who popularized the new ideas of the time
Mary Wollstoncraft
Highly intelligent woman who responds to Rousseau's view on women by completely shutting down his claims
Madame de Geoffrin
She was a very critical debater in the salon movement in the Enlightenment period that patronized certain works, such as the Encyclopedia
Physiocrats
Economists during the Age of Enlightenment
Francois Quesnay
French physiocrat who believes that successful business does not have government regulation on financial matters. This is the beginning of the theory of Laissez Faire.
Adam Smith
British Physiocrat who says that limited government regulation is good but that does not mean that business should abuse labor
Great Wheel of Profit
This was created by Adam Smith. It says that a successful business starts with investment which leads to an increase in labor which increases product which drops the prices and sales skyrockets which finally leads to profit
Deism
The belief that God is great and created everything but then he took a step back to let it take its course. Believe that Christ is not the son of God
Agnosticism
Do not deny the existence of God but they do not acknowledge it
Pietism
Starts during the Great Awakening, A much milder form of puritanism
John Wesley
The founder of Methodism
Methodism
Belief that there is a specific checklist one must complete in order to get to heaven.
Free Masonry
This movement started in the 1700s. It is an organization that is about unlocking knowledge. You can be a part of any religion to join but you must acknowledge the existence of a supreme being
Enlightened Despotism
A ruler who aimed for the advancement of society by fostering education, aiding the economy and promoting social justice
Fredrick II of Prussia
King of Prussia. "Fredrick the Great" He subscribes to Enlightenment in that he limits torture, establishes a 1 year public education system and has a system of religious toleration. He wants to expand the size of Prussia so he takes territory from Austria-Hungary which ignites the French and Indian War
Cathrine the Great.
German Princess who took over Russia after killing her husband. She destroys the Table of Ranks system and frees surfs. Aristos revolt against her so she slaughters the uprising and enslaves 20 million surfs. During the Primean War she takes Crimea and a part of Poland
Joseph II of Austria
Emperor of Austria-Hungary empire. Bans capital punishment and torture. He makes aristos pay races and makes it so that they are equal in the law. Abolishes surfs (slavery). Establishes a 3 year public education system. He is hated by aristos and loved by peasants so he must create a secret police
Rococo Art
Placed emphasis on the carefree life of the aristocracy rather than on grand heroes or pious martyrs
Fragonard
Rococo Artist whose most famous work is "The Swing"
Watteau
Rococo Artist whose most famous work is "Pilgrimige to the Island of Cythera"
Boucher
Rococo Artist whose most famous work is "Diana after Bathing"
Fredrick Williams I of Prussia
King of Prussia who promised and later reneged on his promises for constitutional reforms in 1848.
Olympe de Gauge
"Declaration of the Rights of Women" French writer who promoted the rights of women during the French Revolution; eventually guillotined for her outspoken ideas
Handel
Baroque German composer who spent much of his life in England; best known for his Messiah, a masterpiece even in today's world
Bach
Composer who believed music was a means to worship God and lived a quiet life at a church; created the Mass in B Minor

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