Unification Of Italy
Terms in this set (43)
Otto Von Bismarck
Chancellor/Prime Minister who united German states. A master of realpolitik. Strengthened the army, led Prussia to 3 wars. Gave the 'blood and iron' speech. Launched Kulturkampf.
Kaiser Wilhelm (William II)
Germany's new emperor, confident in his own abilities.Asked Bismarck to resign. Resisted democratic reforms, encouraged social welfare. Spent money on the military.
Was Kaiser of Prussia, made Otto von Bismarck a chancellor. Hires Bismarck and becomes king of all of Germany, the Leader of Prussia who wanted military expansion, and hired Bismarck to further his goals
Emperor of France (1852-70); Nephew of Napoleon I who came to power as president in 1848, then staged a coup, making himself emperor
Overthrew French Directory in 1799 and became emperor of the French in 1804. Failed to defeat Great Britain and abdicated in 1814. Returned to power briefly in 1815 but was defeated and died in exile.
Count Camillo Cavour
Prime minister of Sardinia (northern Italy) who vowed to drive out the Austrians and worked towards a united Italy., Prime Minister of Sardinia-Piedmont who helped provoke Austria into a war which led to the unification of the northern Italian states.
A radical idealistic patriot who wanted a centralized democratic republic based on universal male suffrage and will of the people in Italy, A political nationalist in Italy in the mid 1800's. He started a group called Young Italy that promoted independence from Austrian and Spanish rule and the establishment of an Italian national state. By the mid nineteenth century, Young Italy had inspired the development of nationalist movements in other countries besides Italy, such as Ireland, Switzerland and Hungary.
Italian patriot whose conquest of Sicily and Naples led to the formation of the Italian state (1807-1882), (1807-82). He planned to liberate the Two Kingdoms of Sicily., A "super patriot" of Italy, he helped unify southern Italy with the help of his Red Shirts.
Victor Emmanuel II
He was king of Sardinia, Piedmont and Savory until 1861 when he was crowned the first king of a united Italy, First ruler of a united Italy.
love of country and willingness to sacrifice for it
A tariff-free zone in Germany, in order to boost German economy. Also helps build German nationalism, advocated by Friedrich List.
holy roman empire
Loose federation of mostly German states and principalities, headed by an emperor elected by the princes. It lasted from 962 to 1806. Disolved by Napoleon.
kingdom of sardinia
Constitutional Monarchy under Victor Emmanuel II, with PM Camillo di Cavour. Led the way to Italian unification.
congress of vienna
Meeting of representatives of European monarchs called to reestablish the old order after the defeat of Napoleon.
consisted of 38 sovereign states recognized by the Vienna settlement, and was dominated by Austria and Prussia (b/c of their size); the confederation had little power and needed the consent of all 38 states to take action.
a person who is bound to the land and owned by the feudal lord
1807-82; personified the romantic revolutionary nationalism. Attempted to unify Germany., German Parliament met in Frankfurt to fulfill a liberal and nationalist dream: the preparation of a constitution for a united Germany
the title of the Holy Roman Emperors or the emperors of Austria or of Germany until 1918
realistic governmental improvements/goals
Popularly elected parliament in Germany. Very little power.
member of the Prussian aristocracy noted especially for militarism
Versailles' Hall of Mirrors
1871 German princes gathered in the glittering hall of mirrors. just defeated napoleon III in franco-prussian war. wanted to proclaim new german empire.
House of Krupp
A major German industrial company that boomed after 1871. It became an enormous industrial complex that produced steel and weapons for a world market.
German word for empire.
Bismarck's "battle for civilization," in which his goal was to make Catholics put loyalty to the state above their allegiance to the Church
governmental provision of economic assistance to persons in need, programs to help certain groups of people
Set up by Otto Von Bismarck, war was declared July 19, 1870. In January 1871, Palace of Versailles was captured and Wilhelm I was named Kaiser. This empire was called the Second Reich., Third stage in German unification. Bismark sought to unify all Germans by creating a common enemy in France. Germany defeated France easily and German unification upset the balance of power.
battle of sedan
September 2, 1870. France defeated. Napoleon surrendered and taken prisoner. On September 4 there was an insurrection in Paris and the Third Republic was proclaimed.
A telegram sent to Bismarck from William. Furious over the peaceful resolution of the controversy of Spanish succession and eager to go to war with France, Bismarck revised the telegram to make it seem that William insulted Benedetti. France took Bismarck's bait and plunged into the Franco-Prussian War., The carefully edited dispatch by Bismarck to the French ambassador Benedetti that appeared to be insulting and thus requiring retaliation by France for the seeming affront to French honor.
(1830) secret society, goal was a free and united Italy, founded by Mazzini
This was the royal dynasty of Austria that ruled over a vast part of Central Europe while battling with the Turks over Hungary
the italian nationalistic movement, which its goal of liberation and unification. secret societies had to form because nationalists could not support their cause openly. this term is the italian word for 'resurgence'.
the development of industries for the machine production of goods
Girabaldi's Guerilla troops, volunteers fighting b/c inspired by nationalism. 1000
Bismarck's nickname, from is statement that he would unite Germany by "blood and iron"., German statesman under whose leadership Germany was united (1815-1898)
roman catholic church
the Christian Church based in the Vatican and presided over by a pope and an episcopal hierarchy
the highest official of a monarch, prime minister
migration from a place (especially migration from your native country in order to settle in another)
person who seeks to overturn the established government; advocate of abolishing authority
a sum of money paid in compensation for loss or injury
bloOd and iron speech
"Blood and Iron" was the speech that Otto Von Bismarck gave with the belief that a strong industry and military was needed in a country to have success. The blood represented the military while the iron represented the industry of Germany., This was an important speech made by Otto von Bismark in 1862 order to motivate the parliament to increase military spending. The jist of the speach was that might is not acheived through ideals and group decisions, but through blood and iron.
The second great democratic revolution, taking place in the 1790s, after the American Revolution had been proven to be a success. The U.S. did nothing to aid either side. The French people overthrew the king and his government, and then instituted a series of unsuccessful democratic governments until Napoleon took over as dictator in 1799.
a movement in the 18th century that advocated the use of reason in the reappraisal of accepted ideas and social institutions
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