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____ is (are) BEST defined as our awareness of our environments and ourselves.


Consciousness ____.

exists on a continuum.

The biologically-based, lowest level of awareness identified in your text is ____.

brain dead.

Circadian rhythms are ____.

biological changes that occur on a 24-hour cycle.

Melatonin influences ____.


Jet lag results from ____.

disruption of circadian rhythms

Researchers have documented all EXCEPT which of the following hazards of sleep deprivation?

reduced cortisol levels

Scientists study sleep in sleep labs using ____.

EEG recordings

Just before sleep, brain waves move from ____ waves, indicating normal wakefulness, to ____ waves associated with drowsy relaxation.

beta; alpha

Darius is sleeping right through the sounds of fire engine and police car sirens right outside his window. It is MOST likely that Darius is ____.

in stage 4 sleep

Which of the following is TRUE regarding a typical night's sleep cycles?

REM sleep increases during the night

Galen's new baby is scrunching up her face, breathing irregularly , making little sounds, and moving her eyes rapidly back and forth under closed lids. Galen asks you if this means the baby is waking up. Based on what you know about sleep cycles, you BEST answer would be ____.

No, the baby is most likely in the REM sleep stage

Recent research suggest that REM sleep ____.

is important for consolidating new memories and learning

The repair/restoration theory of sleep says that sleep serves ____.

a recuperative function, following depletion of key brain and body resources

Freud believed that dreams were the "royal road to the ____."


The ____ content of a dream contains the surface symbols that disguise the underlying meaning of the dream.


The ____ content of a dream is the true, unconscious meaning of the dream.


____ theory states that the dreams are by-products of random stimulation of brain cells, whereas the ____ view suggests dreams serve an information processing function and help us sift through our everyday experiences and thoughts.

Activation-synthesis; cognitive

The persistent inability to fall or stay asleep, or awakening too early is a symptom of ____.


Which of the following is TRUE about prescription drugs for insomnia?

They are usually barbiturates or tranquilizers; They decrease REM and stage 4 sleep; There is a danger of developing psychological and physical dependency on them.

In mid-sentence, your friend suddenly slumps over on the couch and appears to have entered the REM-stage of sleep. Which of the following is the BEST explanation for your friend's behavior?

your friend suffers from narcolepsy and should seek medical attention

Sleepwalking is MOST likely to occur in ____.

NREM sleep

Which of the following lists contain ONLY psychoactive drugs?

caffeine, nicotine, and alcohol

The condition that compels someone to use a specific drug or engage in a certain activity is called ____.


When repeated drug use causes changes in the body that require continued drug use to prevent withdrawal symptoms, a state of ____ has been reached.

physical dependence

Singh finds that he has to drink several more beers to get the same buzz he used to get with one or two. Its is likely that Singh has developed ____.

a tolerance to alcohol

Your friend Loretta is taking Seconal prescribed by her doctor. She tell you that she is planning to drink a glass of wine to help her mellow out even more. Based on what you've learned about drugs in this class, what would your BEST response to her be?

Bad idea; taken together they can relax the diaphragm and cause suffocation

Alcohol effects are determined primarily by the amount that reaches the brain. The ____ breaks down alcohol at ____ oz. per hour.

liver; 1

____ can be deadly, but is the most widely used legal stimulant in Western societies.


Opiates are used to achieve ____.

pain relief, feelings of relaxation, euphoria

Tavish tells you that the he can taste the color of the sky and see the sound of the birds chirping. It is likely that Tavish has ingested ____.

a hallucinognen

Hallucinogens ____.

are drugs that produce sensory or perceptual distortions, are called psychedelics, include mescaline, psilocybin, LSD, and marijuana

Research shows that this drug can impair memory, impair lung functioning and immune response, interfere with proper reproductive functioning, and can adversely affect the brain.


____ is a group of techniques designed to focus attention, block out distractions and produce an altered state of consciousness.


____ is an alternate state of heightened suggestibility characterized by deep relaxation and intense focus.


Alternate states of consciousness can be achieved in which of the following ways?

during sleep and dreaming; via chemical channels; through hypnosis and meditation

Jeannie went to a hypnotist show in Las Vegas and was called up on stage. On her way to the stage, Jeannie was concerned that the hypnotist could make her quack like a duck, which she didn't want to do. When Jeannie was hypnotized ____.

the hypnotist could not "make her" quack like a duck.

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