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Sociology Test 2
Terms in this set (43)
Social structure is essential for the survival for society and for the well-being of individuals because it provides a social web of famial support and social relationships that connecs each of us to the larger society. What group has this vital link?
b. divorced females
c. families without children
d. single Afrcian American males
_________ Theorists emphasize3 that social structure is essential because it creates order and predictability in society. Social structure is also important for our human development.
c. Symbolic interationist
Sociologist Robert Park coined the term ________ to refer to persons (such as immigrants) who simultaneously share the life and ttraditons of two distinct groups. It is the state of baing part insider and part outsider in the social structure.
c. social marginality
According to sociologist Everett Hughes, a(n) __________ status is the most important status a person occupies; it dominates all of the individual's other statuses and is the overriding ingredient in determining a person's general social position.
While Eric is working in the fast-food restaurant, he does not want people to think of him as a "loser in a dead-end job." He wants them to view him as a college student who is working there just to "pick up a few bucks" until he graduates. When customers from the college come in, Eric talks to them about college-related topics rather than fast-food. In this scenario, Eric is engaging in:
a. role ambiguity
b. role inconsistency
c. role distancing
d. role exiting
Family, religion, education, the economy, the government, mass media, sports, science and medicine, and the military are examples of:
a. informal organizations
b. working groups
c. social institutions
d. social associations
In ________ societies, the basic social unit is the kinship group or family. People do not have private households or residences. Instead, they live in small groups of abaout twenty-five to forty people.
a. hunting and gathering
d. horticultural and pastoral
hunting and gathering
__________ use the technology of large-scale farming, including animal-drawn or energy-powered plows and equipment, to produce their food supply.
a. Hunting and gathering societies
b. industrial societies
c. Hortical and pastorl societies
d. Agrarian societies
Knowledge is viewed as the basic source of innovation and policy formulation in ___________. As a result, educatoin becomes one of the most important social instituations. Formal education and other sources of information become crucial to the success of individuals and organizations.
a. hortical and pastoral societies
b. postindustrial societies
c. industrial societies
d. agrarian scoieties
Which of the following sociologists used the terms Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft to characterize the degree of social solidarity and social control found in societies?
a. Emile Durkheim
b. Ferdinand Tonnies
c. Max Weber
d. Talcott Parsons
The process by which our perception of reality is largely shaped by the subjective meaning that we give to an experience is referred to as the:
a. recertified anaylsis of reality
b. objectification of social reeality
c. subjective assessment of reality
d. social construction of reality
social construction of reality
Sociologist Arliw Hochschild suggests that we acquire a set of ______ that shapes the appropriate emotions for a given role or specific situation, inclluding how, where, when, and with whom an emotion should be expressed.
a. emotional labors
b. dramaturgical guildelines
c. feeling rules
d. socioemotional norms
The transfer of information between persons without the use of speech is referred to as ________.
a. on-stage dramatization
b. nonverbal communication
c. emotional interaction
d. back-stage implication
In a participant observaiton study of domestic(household) workers and their employers, sociologist Judith Rollins found that domestics were expected to show______ by averting their eyes when they talked to their employers and by standing less erect and walking tentatively.
b. subtle verbalization
c. verbal cues
d. socioeconomic expectations
Anthropoligist Edward Hall asserted that _______ is the immediate area surrounding a person that the person claims as private.
a. intimate space
b. social space
c. public space
d. personal space
A(n) _______ is a collection of people who happen to be in the same place at the same time but share little else in common.
a. social group
d. primary group
Examples of a(n) ________ would include people who are the same age, race, or gender, or those who share the same educational level.
a. social group
c. foraml organization
In discussing primary and secondary groups, the text points out that:
a. formal organizations are secondary groups and have no primary groups within them
b. all secondary groups are approximately the same size
c. there are no significant other in secondary groups
d. some of the people in a secondary may eventually form a primary group
some of the people in a secondary group may eventually form a primary group
A(n) ______ is a group to which a person belong and with which the person feels a sense of identity.
c. secondary gorup
d. reference group
According to functionalists, _________ needs are particularly important for self-expression and support from family, friends, and peers.
Sociologist ______ suggest that small groups have distinct interaction patterns that do not exist in larger groups.
a. Emile Durkhiem
d. Max Weber
c. Herbrert Spencer
d. George Simmel
Two people who are best friends, married couples, and domestic partnerships are all examples of:
b. extended families
d. quaternary formaitons
________ leadership is most appropriate when the group's purpose is to reach a particular goal.
________ leaders encourage group discussion and decision making through consensus building.
Gorups have a significant amount of influence on our values, attitudes, and behavior. Asch's experiments illustrate that in order to gain and then retain our membership in groups, most of us are willing to:
a. enforce cohesion
b. pay little attention
c. exhibit a high level of conformity
d. remian individualized
exhibit a high level of conformity
In Stanley Milgram's experiments, the respondents were:
A(n) ________ is an organiztion characterized by a hierarchy of authority, a clear division of labor, explicit rules and procedures, and impersonality in personnel matters.
A reference group is a group soley of members that strongly influences a person's behavior and sociol attitudes.
T or F?
According to social psychologist Irving Jaris' theory on "groupthink," members usually want to be "team players." They may not want to be the ones who undermine the group's consensus or who challenge the group's leaders. Conseuently, members often limit or withhold their opinions and focus on consnsus raher than exploring all of the options and determing the best course of action.
T or F?
Sociologist Amitai Etzioni classified formal organizations into three cateogories: normative, coervie, and controling.
According to RObert Merton, the term "bureaucratic personality" descrbes those workers who are more concerned with following correct procedres than they are with getting the job done correctly.
T or F?
According to fuctionalists, acts of civil disobedience exemplify which functional of deviance?
a. deviance clarifies rules
b. deviance unites a grup
c. deviance promotes sociol change
d. deviance prevents social chaos
deviance promotes soical change
Historically, punishment has had four major goals. Which is of the following is NOT one of these?
________ crimes include robbery, burglary, lerceny, motor vehicle theft, and arson. In most of these crimes, the primary motive is to obtain money or some other desired valuable.
A young woman graduates from high school with honors and attends a prestigious univeristy, where she completes her degree. She gets a job, she marries, and starts planning for the futre. This woman's behavior illustrates:
The use of negative sanctions teh possible certain behaviors and set forth the punishments for rule breakers and nonconformists is an example of:
a. external social control
b. exterior social control
c. interior social control
d. internal social control
external social control
A _______ is a serious crime for which punishment typically ranges from more than a year's imprisonment to death.
a. civil infraction
From the ________, lower-income and minority women typically have fewer opportunities not only for education and good jobs, but also for "high end" criminal endeavors.
a. conservative feminist approach
b.Marxist feminist approach
c. radical feminist approach
d. liberal feminist approach
liberal feminist aproach
Thw term _______ refers to illegal or unethical acts involving the use of power by government officials or illegal......
a. occupational crime
b. political crime
c. legislative crime
In contemporary societies, the criminal jusctice system, which includes the police, the courts, and the prisons, is the primary mechanism of ______ social control.
The ________ suggests the most people who commit crimes do not engage in random acts of antisocial behavior. Instead, they make careful decisions based on weighing the aavailable information regarding stitualtional factors and personal factors.
a. labeling theory
b. differential association theory
c. rational choice theory
d. social bonding theory
rational choice theory
Sociologist Edwin Sutherland's _______ theory states that people have a greater tendency to deviate fomr societal norms when they frequentaly affiliate with individuals who are more favorable toward deviance then conformity.
a. illegitimate opportunity
b. diffential association
d. status frustration
Societies also have various mechanisms to regulate people's behavior. _______ refers to the systematic practice the social groups develop in order to encourage confromity to norms, rules, and laws and to discourage deviance.
a. social retaliation
b. social emphasis
c. social control
d. social deviance
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