______ _____ (1744 - 1818) is known as the first American Woman honored as the wife of a US President, and the mother of another. Her husband, John _____, the second US President, served from 1797 - to 1801, and their son, John Quincy _____, the sixth US President, served from 1825 - 1829. _______ _____ was often ahead of her time with many of her ideas. She was in opposition of slavery, believed in equal education for boys and girls, and believed it was the duty of the fortunate to help the less fortunate. _______ ______ was also a very early advocate for women's rights Formally known as Edmond-Charles Genêt, Edmond was a French ambassador to the United States during the French Revolution. In 1793, he was dispatched to the United States to promote American support for France's wars with Spain and Britain. He arrived in Charlstown, South Carolina on April 8th. Genêt's goals in South Carolina were to recruit and arm American privateers who would join French expeditions against the British. He commissioned four privateering ships in total, including the Republicaine, the Anti-George, the Sans-Culotte, and the Citizen Genêt. Genêt organized American volunteers to fight Britain's Spanish allies in Florida. After raising a militia, Genêt set sail toward Philadelphia, stopping along the way to marshal support for the French cause and arriving on May 18. He encouraged Democratic-Republican Societies, but President Washington denounced them and they quickly withered away. - it was a convention between the United States and Britain, concluded on Nov. 19, 1794, by U. S. Chief Justice John Jay and British Foreign Minister Lord Grenville, which settled numerous issues remaining from the treaty of peace ending the American Revolution in 1783.
- Jay's Treaty adjusted matters of commerce, frontier posts and boundaries, Indian relations, prewar debts to British creditors, and treatment of returning British Loyalists—all potential sources of conflict.
- Unpopular in the United States, where anti-Federalists charged "surrender," the treaty nevertheless preserved Anglo-American amity and confirmed U. S. neutrality in the European wars resulting from the French Revolution.
- Jay's Treaty helped us normalize relations with Britain after the Revolutionary War. Britain was still fighting with France and trade between the new US and Europe was threatened.
- The treaty made it possible for American ships to trade with both England and France, and this was very important because export was a huge business for us in those days.
- It also strengthened the Federalist party and led to the creation of the Federalist and Anti-Federalist parties in the US, the same two-party system we have today.
- The treaty was only for 10 years. It ran out in 1803 and we weren't able to renew or replace it, and this eventually led to the War of 1812.
The first landmark decision of the Marshall Court came in 1803, in the case of Marbury v. Madison. On the eve of leaving office, Adams had appointed a number of justices of the peace for the District of Columbia. Madison, Jefferson's secretary of state, refused to issue commissions (the official documents entitling them to assume their posts) to these "midnight judges."Four, including William Marbury, sued for their offices. Marshall's decision declared unconstitutional the section of the Judiciary Act of 1789 that allowed the courts to order executive officials to deliver judges' commissions. It exceeded the power of Congress as outlined in the Constitution and was therefore void. Marbury, in other words, may have been entitled to his commission, but the Court had no power under the Constitution to order Madison to deliver it. On the immediate issue, therefore, the administration got its way. But the cost, as Jefferson saw it, was high. The Supreme Court had assumed the right to determine whether an act of Congress violates the Constitution—a power known as "judicial review." lead by Andrew Jackson, took place on January 8th 1815, and was considered a consequence of the War of 1812. The British marched against New Orleans, hoping that by capturing the city they could separate Louisiana from the rest of the US. Pirate Jean Lafitte, however, had warned the Americans of the attack, and the arriving British found militiamen strongly entrenched at Rodriguez Canal. In two separate assaults, the 7500 British soldiers under Sir Edward Pakenham were unable to penetrate the US defenses, and Jackson's 4500 troops decimated the British lines. The British had about 2000 casualties, and the Americans, fewer than 20. Although the battle had no significance to the outcome of the War of 1812, Jackson's victory brought up national pride, which had suffered many setbacks during the war. The Battle of New Orleans was also the last armed engagement between the US and Britain. 1800
• Republicans had developed effective techniques for mobilizing voters, such as printing pamphlets, handbills, and newspapers
• The Federalists, who viewed politics as an activity for a small group of elite men, found it difficult to match their opponents mobilization
• Jefferson won with 73 electoral votes to Adams 65
• Each party arranged to have an elector throw away one of his two votes for president, so its presidential candidate would come out one vote ahead-the republican elector failed to do so
• Jefferson and Burr tied so election was thrown to House of Representatives, which neither man received a majority vote either
• Hamilton intervened, his support for Jefferson tipped the balance
• To avoid repetition, Congress passed the 12th Amendment, requiring electors to cast separate votes for president and vice president
1763-1783 During the American Revolution; they were Americans who remained faithful to the British Empire during the American Revolutionary war; Loyalists suffered regular harassment, had their property seized, or were subject to personal attacks, mainly tar and feathered (the process of being stripped naked, and pouring hot tar upon the person then throwing feathers on the tar); When the war ended, as many as 100,000 Loyalists (including 20,000 slaves) were banished from the United States or chose to leave in order to remain members of the British Empire. In the Treaty of Paris 1783, Americans pledged to end the persecution of Loyalists by state and local governments and to restore property seized during the war. Loyalists who did not leave the country were quickly reintegrated into American society, although despite the promise of the Treaty of Paris, confiscated Loyalist property was not returned. As 23 years of fighting in the French Revolutionary War of 1792 and the Napoleonic Wars of 1803 came to a end, Napoleon Bonaparte escaped to France. Yet only nineteen days later, he returned to France and reassembled his armies. Napoleon resolved to attack the British, Prussian, Belgian, and Dutch armies before the other powers could come to their assistance. This resulted in the Battle of Waterloo, which occurred on June 18, 1815 in present-day Belgium. The battle involved the French, led by Napoleon Bonaparte, against Britain, commanded by the Duke of Wellington, and Prussia, led by General Blücher. The battle was closely fought and either side could have won, but mistakes in communication, leadership and judgment led to French defeat.