32 terms

APES Ch. 17 Miller Environmental & Human Health Hug

environmental hazards and human health
STUDY
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infectious disease
A disease caused by a pathogen
chronic disease
A disease that slowly impairs functioning of an organism
acute disease
A disease that rapidly impairs the functioning of an organism
epidemic
A situation in which a pathogen causes a rapid increase in disease
pandemic
An epidemic that occurs over a large geographic region
plague
An infectious disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, carried by fleas
malaria
A disease caused by mosquitoes implanting parasites in the blood.
tuberculosis
A highly contagious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis that primarily infects the lungs, transmitted through coughing or sneezing.
emergent infectious disease
An infectious disease that has not been previously described or has not been common for at least 20 years
aquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)
An infectious disease caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
A virus that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome
ebola hemorrhagic fever
An infectious disease with high death rates, caused by the Ebola virus
mad cow disease
A disease in which prions mutate into deadly pathogens and slowly damage a cow's nervous system
bird flu
An avian flu caused by the H1N1 virus; also called the Spanish flu
west nile virus
Lives in hundreds of species of birds and is transmitted among birds by mosquitoes
neurotoxins
A chemical that disrupts the nervous systems of animals
carcinogens
Chemicals that cause cancer
mutagens
Carcinogens that cause damage to the genetic material of a cell
teratogens
Chemicals that interfere with the normal development of embryos or fetuses
allergens
A chemical that causes allergic reactions
endocrine disruptors
Chemicals that interfere with the normal functioning of hormones in an animal's body
dose-response studies
A study that exposes organisms to difierent amounts of a chemical and then observes a variety of possible responses, including mortality or changes in behavior or reproduction
sublethal effects
The effects of an environmental hazard that are not lethal, but which may impair an organism's behavior, physiology, or reproduction
ED50
An abbreviation for the effective dose of a chemical that causes 50 percent of the individuals in a dose-response study to display a harmful, but nonlethal, effect
epidemiology
The study of the causes of illness and disease in the populations of humans and other organisms
routes of exposure
The way in which an individual might come into contact with an environmental hazard like
Inhalation, Absorption, Ingestion and Injection
bioaccumulation
An increased concentration of a chemical within an organism over time
biomagnifications
The increase in chemical concentration in animal tissues as the chemical moves up the food chain
persistence
The length of time a chemical remains in the environment
environmental hazard
factors or conditions in the environment that increase the risk of human injury, disease, or death
stockholm convention
A 2001 agreement among 127 nations concerning 12 chemicals to be banned, phased out, or reduced
LD50
the amount of a chemical that kills 50% of the animals in a test population
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