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210 terms

Ch 23 Respiratory

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upper, lower
the respiratory system includes the ___________ and _________ respiratory system
nose, pharynx, associated structures
what is included in the upper respiratory system
larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs
what is included in the lower respiratory system
conducting zone
this conducts air to lungs
nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, terminal bronchioles
what structures are part of the conducting zone (conducts air to lungs)
respiratory zone
this is the main site of gas exchange
respiratory bronchioles, alveolarducts, alveolarsacs, alveoli
what are the structures of the respiratory zone (main site of gas exchange
external nose
this is the part of nasal system that is visible externally
internal nose
this is the large cavity beyond the nasal vestibule
choanae
what is another word for internal nares
internal nose
ducts (located superior) from the paranasal sinuses and nasolacrimal ducts open into the
nasal septum
the nasal cavity is divided by the
meatuses
nasal conchae subdivide the nasal cavity into nasal
dehydration
nasal conchae subdivide the nasal cavity into nasal meatuses to increase surface area in order to prevent _________________
olfactory receptors
_________ ______________ are in olfactory epithelium
internal nares, cricoid cartilage, larynx
the pharynx starts at the _________ ____________ and extends to the ________ ____________ of the ___________
deglutition
constraction of skeletal muscles assist in ______________
passageway, resonating chamber, houses tonsils
what are the three main functions of the pharynx
air, food
the pharynx is a passageway for what
nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx
what are the three anatomical regions of the pharynx
larynx
this is a short passageway connecting the laryngopharynx with the trachea - just below the hyoid
cartilage
the larynx is composed of _______________
9
how many pieces of cartilage is the larynx composed of
thyroid cartilage (adams apple)
the larynx is composed of 9 pieces of cartilage - what is one major piece
tracheotomy
the cricoid cartilage is the hallmark for a (this is the a general area)
glottis
the epiglottis closes off the _____________ during swallowing
glottis
this is a pair of folds of mucous membranes, vocal folds (true vocal cords), and the space between them called the rima glottidis
cilia
this is in the upper respiratory tract to move mucous and trapped particles down toward the pharynx
lower respiratory
cilia in the _________ ____________ tract move mucous and trapped particles up toward the pharynx
ventricular folds, vocal folds
what are the structures of voice production
ventricular folds
these are superior, and part of voice production - they are used in holding your breath against pressure in thoracic cavity
vocal folds
these are inferior, and part of voice production - they vibrate, move apart or together, elongate or shorten, tighter or looser to produce sound with air
elastic ligaments
muscle contraction pulls __________ ____________ which stretch the vocal folds out into airway to produce sound
androgens
this makes the folds thicker and longer for slower vibration and lower pitch - gives male deeper voice
mucous membranes
___________ _________ of larynx forms the ventricular folds and vocal folds
trachea
this extends from the larynx to superior border of T5
primary bronchi
the trachea extends from the larynx to the superior border of T5 and divides into the right and left ________ ________________
mucosa, submucosa, hyaline cartilage, adventitia
what are the 4 layers of the trachea
16, 20
the trachea is made up of ___ to ___ C shaped rings of hyaline cartilage
hyaline cartilage
the trachea is made up of 16 to 20 C shaped rings of _________ __________ - the open part faces the esophagus
carina
this is an internal ridge - it is the most sensitive area for triggering the cough reflex
upper respiratory
everything located above the larynx is considered the
lower respiratory
everything located from the larynx down is considered the
superior, middle, inferior
what are the three conchae folds
below (inferior)
where is the nasal meatus located - in referance to the conchae
pharangeal, palatine (can see), lingual
what are the three tonsils
palatine
the nasopharynx is superior and located behind the
inferior
the oropharyns is in the middle and the laryngopharynx is __________ to it
posterior
the cricoid cartilage is not the same size all the way around - it is larger on the ___________ side
crico thyroid ligament
a tracheotomy is done here to avoid most ofther structures - this is the specific area - a hole is put here so you can breath
lungs
the right and left primary bronchus go to the right and left __________
bronchial tree
the primary bonchus divide to form the
secondary lobar bronchi, tertiary bronchi, bronchiles, terminal bronchioles
the primary bronchus divide to for the bronchial tree which becomes what 4 things
plates, disappear, smooth muscle
there are structural changes to the bronchi as it branches - the mucous membranes change, incomplete rings become _________ and then ___________, as cartilage decreases the _____________ ____________ increases
sympathetic
this part of the ANS is for relaxation/dilation
parasympathetic
this part of the ANS is for contraction/constriction
lungs
these are seperated from each other by the heart and other structures in the mediastinum
pleural membrane
each lung is enclosed by a double layered _________ ____________
parietal, visceral
each lung is enclosed by a double layered pleural membrane - it includes the ____________ and _____________
pleural cavity
this is located between the two layers of the pleural membrane of the lungs
reduce friction, produce surface tension
the function of the pleural fluid located in the pleural cavity is to
pleural fluid
this is within the pleural cavity and it's function is to reduce friction and produce surface tension (stick together)
cardiac notch
this is part of the left lung and makes it 10% smaller than the right
lobes
each lung is divided into ___________ by 1 or 2 fissures
tertiary bronchi (segmental)
each lobe of the lung receives it's own secondary (lobar) bronchus that will branche into
lymphatic vessel, arteriole, venule, terminal bronchiole
lobules of the lung are wrapped in elastic connective tissue and contain a _____________ __________, ______, __________, and a branch from the __________ ______________
respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts
terminal bronchioles of the lung branch into ______________ ______________ which divide into ____________ _____________
25
there are about _______ orders of branching in the lungs
alveoli
this is a cup shaped outpouching - like a grape - 2 or more of these makes the alvoli sac
alveolar sac
this is two or more alveoli (cup shaped outpouching - bunch of grapes) sharing a common opening
alveolar epithelial cells
there are two types of __________ ______________ _____________ - type i and type ii
type i alveolar cells
these form continuous lining of alveolar wall, more numerous than the other type, this is the main site of gas exchange - single membrane for easy diffustion
type ii alveolar cells
these are found between other cells - they are rounded or cuboidal free surfaces containing microvilli, they secrete alveolar fluid (part surfactant) - line inside of - not part of the wall
surfactant
this is in the alveolar fluid, it lowers the surface tension fo alveolar fluid which reduces the tendency of alveoli to collapse - the lung to collapse
alveolar wall, epithelial basement membrane, capillary basement membrane, capillary endothelium
the respiratory membrane is very thin - and made up of
.5 um
the respiratory membrane is only ____ thick - to allow rapid diffusion of gases
pulmonary artery, bronchial arteries
the lungs receive blood from the (2)
pulmonary artery
deoxygenated blood of the lungs comes from the
bronchial arteries
oxygenated blood to perfuse (flood) muscular walls of bronchi and bronchiles via the
none
the trachea to the bronchioles changes in structure - it goes from having cartilage to having _______
costal
this pleural membrane covers/attaches to the rib
mediastenum
this pleural membrane cover the middle area - trachea, esophagus, bronchia
diaphragmatic
this pleural membrane covers the diaphragm
cupula
this pleural membrane is around the apex of the lungs just above the clavicle
respiration
this is gas exchange
pulmonary ventilation, external respiration, internal respiration
these are the three steps of respiration (gas exchange)
pulmonary ventilation (breathing)
this is inhalation and exhalation - the exchange of air between atmosphere and alveoli
external (pulmonary) respiration
this is the movement of oxygen from the alveoli into pulmonary capillaries and carbon dioxide from pulmonary capillaries to the alveoli
internal (tissue) respiration
this is the movement of oxygen from capillaries into body cells and carbon dioxide from body cells into capillaries - supplies cellular respiration (makes atp)
atp
internal (tissue) respiration is the exchange of gases between systemic capillaries and tissue cells - supplies cellular respiration and makes ______
lower
pressure inside the alveoli must become ___________ than atmospheric pressure for air to flow into the lungs
boyles law
pressure inside the alveoli must become lower than atmospheric pressure for air to flow into the lungs - this is achieved by increasing the size of lungs - increase volume, decrease pressure this is know as
boyles law
the pressure of a gas in a closed container is inversely proportional to the volume of the container
inhalation
lungs must expand, increasing lung volume, decreasing pressure below atmospheric pressue for
diaphragm, external intercostals
inhalation is active - it is the contraction of the ____________ and _______ ____________
diaphragm
this is the most important muscle for inhalation - it flattens, lowering the dome when contracted - responsible for 75% of air entering the lungs during normal quiet breathing
external intercoastals
these muscles are responsible for 25% of air entering lungs during normal quiet breathing - contraction and elevation of ribs
sternocleidomastoid, scalenes, pectoralis minor
these muscles assist with deep, forceful inhalation
subatmospheric, surface tension
when the thorax expands, parietal and visceral pleura adhere tightly due to _____________ pressure and ___________ ____________ - pulled along with expanding thorax
decreases
as lung volume increases, alveolar (intrapulmonic) pressure _______
exhalation (expiration)
this happens when pressure in the lungs is greater than atmospheric pressure
passive
exhalation is normally _________ - muscles relax instead of contractinvolves relaxation of the diaphragm and elastic recoil of chest wall and lungs from elastic fibers and surface tension of alveolar fluid
elastic recoil, alveolar fluid
exhalation is normally passive - muscles relax - involves relaxation of the diaphragm and ________ _______________ of chest wall and lungs from elastic fibers and surface tension of _______ ______________
exhalation (expiration)
during this the diaphragm relaxes and becomes dome shaped - external intercostals relax and ribs drop down
forceful breathing
exhalation is only active during ___________ ___________
suface tension, lung compliance, airway resistance
air pressure differences drive airflow - what are the 3 other factors that affect rate of airflow (ease of pulmonary ventilation)
surface tension of alveolar fluid
this causes alveoli to assume smallest possible diameter - accounts for 2/3 of lung elastic recoil - it prevents collapse of alveoli exhalation
lung compliance
this is related to elasticity and surface tension - high means the lungs and chest wall expand easily
airway resistance
this is regulated by the diameter of the bronchioles and smooth muscle tone - a larger diameter airway has less restriction
air pressure
______ __________ differences drive airflow
minute ventilation (mv)
the total volume of air inhaled and exhaled each minute
12
a normal healthy adult averages ___ breaths per minute
500 ml
normal healthy adult averages 12 breaths per minute - moving about ______ of air in and out of lungs (tidal volume)
breaths/min x breath = liters/min
what is the formula for figuring MV (minute ventilation)
70, 30
only about ____% of tidal volume reaches respiractory zone - the other _____% remains in conducting zone
anatomic dead space
this is an area of conducting airways with air that does not undergo respiratory gas exchange -can not blow out
alveolar ventilation rate
this is the volume of air per minute that actually reaches the respiratory zone
inspiratory reserve volume
this is the maximum amount of air you can take in - a very deep breath
expiratory reserve volume
this the air left after inhaling normally and exhaling forcefully
oblique fissure
this separates the superior and inferior lobes of the left lung
horizontal fissure
this separates the superior and middle lobes of the right lung
oblique fissure
this separates the middle and inferior lobes of the right lung
lingula
the is the peak that hangs over just below the cardiac notch of the left lung
hilus
this is the area where veins and arteries are in the lungs
left superior, right anterior
artery locations in relation to the primary bronchus - lisa simpson rides again - veins are inferior in both left and right
pulmonary circulation
this is the pulmonary system for the lung - for the organ it's self
pulmonary circulation
the pulmonary artery receives deoxygenated blood - bronchial artery carries oxygenated blood to bronchioles - this follows the primary arteries just like the heart
760 mmHg
the normal atmospheric pressure is ___________ - just a 2mm decrease in alveolar pressure will allow you to pull in air
autonomic nervous system
what does ans stand for
vital capacity
inspiratory reserve volume + tidal volume + expiratory reserve volume =
total lung capacity
vital capacity + residual volume =
residual volume
this is the amount of air that is always in lungs - about 1 liter (avg)
total pressure
this is the sum of specific gases
atmospheric pressure (760mmHg)
Pn2 + Po2 + Ph2o + Pco2 + Pother gases =
faster
blood has a lower pressure than the atmospheric pressure - this allows diffusion - the greater the difference the _________ the rate of diffusion
o2
there are some illnesses that diffusion of O2 to blood doesn't happen as well - this is due to the amount of ______ in the blood
pressure
each gas within a mixture of gases exerts it's own ___________ - as if no other gases were present
Px
pressure of a specific gas is ____________ __________ - noted ____
total pressure
each gas in a mixture of gases exerts it's own pressure as if no other gases were present - pressure of a specific gas is partial pressure (Px) - ____________ ____________ is the sum of all the partial pressures
greater, less
each gas diffuses across a permeable membrane from the area where it's partial pressure is ____________ to the area where it's partial pressure is ____________
henrys law
the quantity of gas that will dissolve in a liquid is proportional to the partial pressures of the gas and its solubility
stay
in Henry's Law - higher partial pressure of a gas over a liquid and higher solubility - more of the gas will ______ in solution
co2, o2
much more ____ is dissolved in blood than ______ - because it is 24 times more soluble
n2
even though the air we breath is mostly ___ , very little dissolves in blood due to low solubility
bends
even though the air we breath is mostly N2, very little dissolves in blood due to low solubility - in divers there's greater pressure - more N2 dissolves in blood - if come up too fast you get decompression sickness or ________
equilibrium
diffusion of oxygen continues until Po2 of pulmonary capillary blood matches Po2 of alvolar air - oxygen wants to go from high to low pressure - this will happen until oxygen levels reach ___________
alveolar, pulmonary capillaries
oxygen diffuses from _________ air into blood of __________ __________
pulmonary veins
a small amount of mixing with blood from the conducting portion of the respiratory system drops Po2 of blood in __________ _______ to 100mmHg in external respiration
pulmonary capillaries, alveolar air
carbon dioxide diffuses from deoxygenated blood in ____________ ________________ into the ___________ _______ - this continues until Pco2 in blood reaches 40mmHg - this is external respiration
partial pressures, surface area, diffusion distance, molecular weight, solubility
the rate of pulmonary and systemic gas exchange depends on (5)
internal
thisrespiration happens in the tissues throughout the body
systemic capillary, atp
oxygen diffuses from _________ _____________ blood into tissue cells - cells constantly use oxygen to make _______ - internal respiration
systemic capilaries
in internal respiration blood drops to 40mmHg by the time it exits the ________ ____________
tissue cells
in internal respiration carbon dioxide diffuses from _________ ________ into systemic capillaries - cells constantly make carbon dioxide
45 mmHg
in internal respiration carbon dioxide diffuses from tissue cells into systemic capillaries - cells constantly make carbon dioxide - Pco2 blood reaches ______
25, 75
at rest only about ____% of the available oxygen is used - deoxygenated blood would retain ____% of its oxygen capacity
higher
the rate of pulmonary and systemic exchange depends on partial pressures of gases - alveolar Po2 must be _________ than blood Po2 for diffusion to occur - this can be a problem with increasing altitude
faster, hypoxia, hypercapnia
the rate of pulmonary and systemic gas exchange depends on molecular weight and solubility of gases - O2 has a lower molecular weight and should diffuse __________ than CO2 except for it's low solubility - when diffusion is slow, ___________ occurs before _____________
systemic capillaries
blood O2 level drops by the time it exits the __________ __________
tissue
co2 goes from the ________ to the systemic capillaries
25
at rest we only use _____% of available O2
plasma
only about 1.5% of oxygen is dissolved in __________
hemoglobin
98.5% of oxygen is bound to _____________ in red blood cells
heme
________ contains 4 iron atoms - each can bind with one O2 molecule - it is the part that binds wi O2
iron
heme portion of hemoglobin contains 4 _________ atoms - each can bind with one O2 molecule
oxyhemoglobin
heme portion of hemoglobin contains 4 iron atoms - each can bind with one O2 molecule - making _____________
diffuse, dissociate
heme portion of hemoglobin contains 4 iron atoms - each can bind with one O2 molecule - making oxyhemoglobin - only dissolved portion can _______ out of blood into cells - the oxygen must be able to bind and __________ from the heme
O2
relationship between hemoglobin and oxygen partial pressure - the higher the Po2 the more _____ combines with Hb
oxyhemoglobin
the relationship between hemoglobin and oxygen partial pressure - the higher the Po2 the more O2 combines with Hb - fully saturated it will completely convert to
hemoglobin, oxygen
the percent of oxygen saturation of hemoglobin expresses the average saturation of _________ with _______
pulmonary capillaries, tissues
O2 loads onto Hb in the _________ __________ - it then dissolves it does not unload in _____________ - O2 is not held and is unloaded
released (dissolved)
oxygen must be able to bind and be ___________ - it can not in tissue
75
____% of oxygen will remain attached to the hemoglobin - doesn't go to tissue
saturated
oxyhemoglobin is fully __________ - oxygen to hemoglobin
acidity, Pco2, temperature
there are other factors that will affect the affinity curve of hemoglobin and oxygen - what are 3
affinity curve
when you work out, you get a build up of lactic acid, co2, heat and waste - this will affect the ________ _____________
decreases
as acidity increases (ph decreases) affinity of Hb for O2 ___________
oxygen
Pco2 will shift the affinity curve to the right - as Pco2 rises, Hb unloads ___________ more easily
low blood ph (acidic)
_____ ________ ______ results from high Pco2
bohr effect
as acidity increases (low ph) affinity of Hb for O2 decreases - increasing acidity enhances unloading of O2 and shifts the curve to the right - this is called the ________ __________
hemoglobin
increased acidity (low ph) will cause O2 to unload from ___________ more readily - decreased affinity
ph, increase
with low pressure of CO2 you will have lower ________ of blood and the affinity of Hb to O2 will _____________
released
within limits, as temperature increases more oxygen is ___________ from Hb
hypothermia
during ____________, more oxygen remains bound to Hb
ciatic
in low temperatures o2 will not disassociate as readily - target tissues can become ________ (dying cells)
affinity
fetal hemoglobin has a higher ___________ for oxygen than adult hemoglobin
30
Hb-F can carry up to _____% more oxygen
transferred
the maternal blood's oxygen is readily ___________ to fetal blood
7, 23, 70
carbon dioxide is transported by the following - ____% is dissolved to gas, ______% combines with aminco acids including those in Hb (carbamino compounds), ______% is transported in plasma as bicarbonate ions (HCO3-)
amino acids, carbaminohemoglobin
about 23% of carbon dioxide combines with _______ ________ including those in Hb - making _____________________
placenta
oxygen is picked up from the mother via the ___________ - to the fetus
30
fetal blood can carry up to ______% more oxygen - than the mom's
HCO3-
the majority of carbon dioxide is transported in plasma as _________
carbonic anhydrase
enzyme __________ _________ forms carbonic acid (H2CO3) which dissociates into H+ and HCO3-
rbc's
HCO3- accumulates inside ______ as they pick up carbon dioxide - some diffuses out into plasma
plasma
chloride shift - to balance the loss of negative ions, chloride moves into rbc's from ___________
reverse
chloride shift - to balance the loss of negative ions, chloride moves into rbc's from plasma - the ______________ happens in lungs
pneumothorax
this is air in pleural cavity - negative pressure can not be generated
emphysema
this is an accumulation of air in terminal bronchioles and alveolar sacs - air is stuck there and will not move - can't exhale it - reduces area available for gas exchange of O2
pneumonia
this is inflammation of the lungs
pleurasy
this is inflammation of pleura - associated with fluid in pleural cavity
asthma
this is due to excessive stimulation of vagus nerve - can't get air in
thoracentesis
this is a puncture to get fluid out - done after accumulation of fluid at the mid axillary in the 10th intercostal space
hiccup
this is a spasm of the diaphragm - vocal cord and glottis make sound - it is from stimulation of the phrenic nerve
phrenic nerve
if you have chronic hiccups they will crush the _________ __________ - does not cause permanent damage
laryngitis
this is an inflammation of the mucous membrane of the larynx - dry, sore throat
26
fetal lungs develop in week
surfactant
fetal lungs develop in week 26 - this is when ______________ begins to be secreted
surfactant
if child is born before week 26 will try to breath but lung will collapse because there's no secretion of ________________
stimulate production
drugs can be used to ____________ _____________ of surfactant