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Packet 7 AAMI Dr.D

description of heart

*hollow muscular organ
*cone shaped
*size of your fist
*3.5" wide x 5" long
*four chambers

location of heart

*in mediastinum
*placed obliquely with 2/3
*right border sits on diaphram

wide top portion of Heart

called base
lies the right

narrow inferior portion

called apex
lies the left


outer later
*serous membrane

Visceral Pericardium/Epicardium

sits right on top of the heart

Pericardial cavity filled w/ pericardial fluid

found between visceral/pareital pericardium

Parietal Pericardium

outer layer


*middle layer
*muscular layer
*made of cardiac muscle tissue/striated & involuntary
*thickest layer of the heart
*forms the bulk of the heart wall
*responsible for pumping action


*inner layer
*made out of thin layer of endothelium
*not only covers the valves of heart - but also continuous w/ endothelial lining of blood vessels

upper chambers

known as right & let ATRIA (they receive blood)

lower chambers

*right & left ventricles (thickest of all)
*send blood out of heart
*thicker than the Atria

septal walls

divisions w/in the heart

interatrial septum

wall that separates the right atrium from left atrium

atrio-ventricular septum

wall that separates the atria from the ventricles

right atrio-ventricular septum

separates Right Atrium from Right Ventricle

left atrio-ventricular septum

wall that separates Left Atrium from Left Ventricle

interventricular septum

wall that separates right ventricle from left ventricle

function of a valve

allows the blood to flow in one direction preventing back-flow and or regurgitation

Tricuspid valve or right atrio-ventricular valve

*located btwn Right Atrium & Right Ventricle
*called this because it has THREE cusps/flaps

Bicuspid valve; mitral valve or left atrio-ventricular valve

*located btwn Left Atrium & Left Ventricle
*called this because it has TWO cusps/flaps

Pulmonary semi-lunar valve

found @ the orifice of the pulmonary trunk

Aortic semi-lunar valve

found @ the orifice of the AORTA

Superio Vena Cava (SVC)

LARGE vein carrying de-oxygenated blood from all areas above the diaphragm
where? [right atrium]

Inferior Vena Cave (IVC)

LARGE vein carrying de-oxygenated blood from all areas below the diaphragm
where? [right atrium]

Coronary Sinus

vein that is located in Posterior wall of the Right Atrium that returns blood to the heart itself (coronary circulation)
where? [right atrium]

Pectinate Muscles

*located in the anterior wall of the Atria (both)
*muscular ridges that run parallel to each other (resemble teeth on a comb)
where? [right atrium]

Fossa Ovalis (ovale)

*oval-shaped depression located in the septal wall of the Right Atrium
*is remainder of the Foramen Ovale - in the fetal heart which normally closes soon after birth
where? [right atrium]

Trabeculae Carnae

*located in anterior wall
*series of ridges formed by irregular folds of the myocardium
where? [right ventricle]

Chordae Tendineae

fibrous chords that attach to the under-surface of the valves & to papillary muscles
where? [right ventricle]

Papillary Muscles

cone-shaped muscles located in the anterior wall of the ventricles that project upward into the Lumena of the ventricles
where? [right ventricle]

Pulmonary Veins

vessels that return Oxygenated Blood to the heart (from the Lungs)
where? [left atrium]

Left Ventricle

this chamber mimics the right ventricle because it also contains: trabeculae carneae, chordae tendineae & papillary muscles

Sinoatrial Node (SA Node)

*located in wall of right atrium
*acts as the pacemaker of the heart
*initiates cardial cycle which causes both Atria to contract

Atrioventricular Node (AV Node)

*located in right atrio-ventricular septum
*acts as the receiving & transfer station for cardiac impulses
*picks up impulses from the SA node & delivers it to the bundle of his

Bundle of His

located on either side of the inter-ventricular septum

Purkinje Fibers

emerge from the 'bundle of His' & electrical impulses travel through these fibers until it comes in contact w/ heart muscle associated w/ the myocardium of the ventricles

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