US History STAAR Review
Terms in this set (240)
WESTWARD EXPANSION (1877-1900) -
Era immediately after the Civil War that saw the increased settlement of the land west of the Mississippi River. It is defined by the increased white settler population coming into conflict with the American Indian tribes already living there.
1. Great Plains
Grassland of central North America that extends from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains.
2. Homestead Act (1862)
A law that provided 160 acres to anyone who was willing to settle land in the Great Plains.
3. Cattle drives
As the demand for beef increased, cowboys drove herds of cattle along trails to be shipped east by railroad. Famous trails include the Chisholm, Western, and Goodnight-Loving.
The Great Plains Indians relied on the buffalo for their way of life (food, clothing, weapons, tools). As the white settlers killed the buffalo off, it destroyed the Plains Indians lifestyle.
5. Dawes Act (1887)
Law that attempted to assimilate Indians by giving them individual plots of land. It authorized the president of the United States to survey Indian tribal land and divide it into 160-acre allotments for individual Indians.
6. Battle of Little Bighorn (1876)
General George Custer and the 7th Cavalry were slaughtered by Sitting Bull and a group of Indians. Custer had been pursuing the group to force them back to the reservations.
THE GILDED AGE (1877-1900) -
The term "Gilded Age" was coined by Mark Twain in his novel "The Gilded Age A Tale of Today", which satirized what they believed to be an era of serious social problems hidden by a thin layer of gold. The Gilded Age was a time of enormous economic growth that attracted millions of immigrants from Europe.
7. Andrew Carnegie
A Scottish-American industrialist who was a titan in the steel industry. His book, The Gospel of Wealth, was a call to other wealthy people to engage in philanthropy (charity).
8. John D. Rockefeller
American businessman who started the Standard Oil Company, which at one time he owned or controlled 90% of the oil industry in the late 1800s.
Situation in which one company controls an entire industry.
When small companies join together to form one large company.
The economic doctrine that argues that the government should not interfere with business practices.
12. Social Darwinism
The belief that the rich succeed because they are superior to the poor. This belief was applied to big business during the Gilded Age.
13. Sherman Antitrust Act (1890)
Law that was supposed to outlaw business monopolies, but was ineffective because it failed to legally define monopolies and trusts.
14. Labor unions
Organizations that protected the interests of the workers. They helped create the 40-hour work week and dealt with dangerous working conditions by using sit-ins, strikes, and other means of protest. Famous labor unions included the Knights of Labor and the American Federation of Labor.
When the economy experiences a combination of a rise in manufacturing and a decline in agriculture.
The rapid growth of cities caused by the expansion of manufacturing. With urbanization came a large range of urban problems including a lack of sanitation, transportation, and crowded living conditions.
17. Political machines
Corrupt groups that controlled politics in the cities. Led by "political bosses" (most famously Boss Tweed, the leader of Tammany Hall), the political machines would use dishonest methods to grab votes for their party.
A political philosophy supporting the rights and power of the people in their struggle against the privileged elite. Most common populists were poor farmers in the South and the Great Plains.
THE PROGRESSIVE ERA (1900-1920) -
An era when upper middle-class urban professionals began favoring social, political, and economic reform. Modern progressivism emerged as a response to the abuses of industrialization during the Gilded Age.
19. Social Gospel
The idea that the wealthy had an obligation as Christians to help those people less fortunate who were living in the cities.
20. Jane Addams
The founder of Hull House in Chicago who was a leader in the Social Gospel movement as well as a leading suffragette (advocate for the women's right to vote).
21. Settlement houses
Community centers that helped immigrants address the problems of living in the crowded cities. They would provide immigrants with help in learning to read and write English, as well as help keep cultural and religious traditions alive.
Name given to reporters and writers who worked to expose the corruption and abuse of big business.
23. Upton Sinclair
Muckraking author of The Jungle, a book that described the terrible health conditions in the meat-packing industry and the struggles of the workers.
The right to vote; during the Progressive Era, the fight for suffrage was for women.
25. Susan B. Anthony
A prominent American civil rights leader who played a pivotal role in the 19th century women's movement to introduce to the United States.
Procedure by which citizens can propose a law to be placed on the ballot.
Procedure by which voters can vote on laws that have already been passed or are being proposed.
Procedure by which a public official can be removed from office by a popular vote.
A national ban on the manufacture, distribution, or sale of alcohol in the United States from 1920-1933.
30. W.E.B. DuBois
An early African-American civil rights leader who co-founded the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP).
31. Ida B. Wells
An African-American journalist and activist who led an anti-lynching crusade in the 1890s.
The proposed improvement of the human species by encouraging or permitting reproduction of only those people with genetic characteristics judged desirable.
33. Theodore Roosevelt
As the first progressive president, he was known as the "Trustbuster". He also led the campaign to clean up the meat-packing industry and was committed to preserving land in the United States that eventually became our national parks. Eventually left the Republican Party to form the Progressive Party, nicknamed the "Bull Moose" Party.
AMERICAN IMPERIALISM (1893-1920) -
After a long history of isolationism, the United States wanted to expand its influence and create new economic markets around the world.
34. Open-door Policy
A policy declared by the United States that would ensure its ability to trade in China on an equal footing with the Europeans and Japanese.
35. Alfred Thayer Mahan
A naval officer and author of The Influence of Sea Power upon History, which illustrated that a country needed a strong navy to compete on the world stage.
36. Role of missionaries
Missionaries went throughout the world to spread Christianity and western values (language, law, capitalism) to the "heathen masses".
37. Sanford B. Dole
The son of missionaries, he served as the first president of the Republic of Hawaii after the U.S. overthrew the rightful monarch, Queen Liliuokalani.
38. Annexation of Hawaii (1898)
Supported by the Christian missionaries and the businessmen on the islands, the United States incorporated the Hawaiian Islands as a territory over the objection of many of the native peoples.
39. Spanish-American War (1898)
Fueled by imperialism, yellow journalism, the destruction of the USS Maine, and the DeLome Letter, the United States and Spain fought in Cuba and the Philippines. The United States' victory signaled to Europe that America was ready to become a world power.
40. Theodore Roosevelt
A committed imperialist president, he served as a military commander of the Rough Riders during the Spanish American War and led the charge to build the Panama Canal.
41. Panama Canal (1914)
A man-made waterway created by the United States that connects the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, allowing ships to avoid going around the tip of South America.
42. Results of the Spanish-American War
The United States becomes a world power by acquiring as territories the Philippines, Guam, and Puerto Rico. Because of the Platt Amendment, the U.S. also unofficially controls Cuba.
43. World War I (1914-1918)
( U.S. joined in 1917 ) Sparked by the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand of Austria, this devastating conflict in Europe over militarism, nationalism, alliances, and imperialism. After attempting to remain isolated, the U.S. joins the fight after the sinking of the RMS Lusitania, Germany's practice of unrestricted submarine warfare, and the Zimmerman telegram.
44. Trench warfare
New form of warfare where soldiers would fight in trenches below ground-level to avoid machine gun fire.
The situation that developed because of trench warfare, where neither side was able to gain an advantage.
46. New weapons of war
Machine guns, poison gas, tanks, and airplanes were all introduced in an effort to break the stalemate of trench warfare.
47. General John J. Pershing
The commander of the American Expeditionary Force during WWI. Under his leadership, American forces helped the Allies end the stalemate.
48. Battle of Argonne Forest (1918)
An Allied victory that led to the surrender of Germany and the end of the war.
49. Treaty of Versailles
Officially ended WWI. It blamed Germany for the war and exacted harsh punishment in the form of reparations (repaying the Allies for the costs of the war). The mistreatment of Germany after WWI helped lead to the rise of Adolph Hitler and eventually WWII.
50. Woodrow Wilson
A progressive who was president of the United States during WWI. He authored the Fourteen Points, which were designed to "make the world safe for democracy."
51. Fourteen Points
President Wilson's proposal for peace after WWI. Wilson called for the freedom of the seas, ending secret treaties, a League of Nations, arms control, and other peaceful measures.
52. League of Nations
International organization formed after WWI to help solve disputes between countries. The U.S. did not join and the group suffered from an inability to enforce decisions.
53. Henry Cabot Lodge
Republican senator and leader of the Irreconcilables, a group of Republican senators opposed to the U.S.'s involvement in the League of Nations because they desired to avoid foreign entanglements.
THE ROARING '20s (1920-1929) -
A decade of increased U.S. economic prosperity and cultural transformation that was fueled by the consumption of consumer goods.
54. Return to normalcy
President Warren Harding's campaign pledge to go back to the America before WWI, including an emphasis on big business and an isolationist foreign policy.
55. Teapot Dome Scandal
The first major political scandal of the 20th century when it was discovered that government oil reserves were being sold to private businesses in exchange for bribes.
56. The Red Scare
After WWI, Americans became very fearful of radical political theories, which manifested itself primarily through a distrust of immigrants, and organizations like the Ku Klux Klan became more prominent and powerful.
A philosophy of the 1920s where people born in the United States were prejudiced against immigrants.
58. Sacco and Vanzetti
Italian immigrants and anarchists who were put on trial for murder. It is thought that they did not receive a fair trial because of their political beliefs.
59. Glenn Curtiss
An aviation pioneer who supplied planes and improved designs during WWI.
60. Charles Lindbergh
An American pilot who made the first non-stop flight across the Atlantic Ocean in his plane The Spirit of St. Louis.
61. Marcus Garvey
Inspired racial pride in millions with his idea of Pan-Africanism (returning all blacks in America back to Africa to start a new empire).
62. Henry Ford
Auto manufacturer who applied the idea of the assembly line to automobile production, resulting in the Model T, the first car that was affordable for everyday Americans.
63. The Scopes Trial (1925)
The famous "Monkey Trial" that was the result of a Tennessee state law that prohibited the teaching of evolution in public school. The trial represented an ongoing cultural divide between modernism (science of evolution) and traditionalism (Biblical teachings).
64. William Jennings Bryan
The prosecutor in the Scopes Trial who supported the teaching of creationism in school. He was also famous as a Democrat and Populist presidential candidate.
65. Clarence Darrow
The defense attorney in the Scopes Trial that argued that the Tennessee law was unconstitutional.
Mostly urban women who embraced new cultural attitudes and fashions such as shorter dresses and haircuts and new political freedoms.
A popular music style that originated at the beginning of the 20th century that was born from a mix of European and black American music styles.
68. Harlem Renaissance
An explosion of African-American cultural creativity in music, art, and literature that was centered in Harlem, New York. Langston Hughes was the most famous individual to emerge from the time.
69. Great Migration
The mass migration of African-Americans from the mostly agricultural South to the industrialized northern cities from 1910-WWI. The people were fleeing institutionalized racism and poor job prospects and heading north in search of jobs in the factories.
THE GREAT DEPRESSION (1929-1940) -
A period of worldwide economic downturn made worse by the destruction of Europe during WWI and the slow response of the United States government.
70. Causes of the Great Depression
A decline in world trade, high protective tariffs, an overproduction of consumer goods, and margin buying (using borrowed money to purchase stocks). Continued high unemployment was a major problem in the United States until the outbreak of World War II.
71. Black Tuesday (1929)
Name given to the day when the New York Stock Market crashed, sparking the beginning of the Great Depression.
72. Dust Bowl
Name given to an area in the Great Plains that experienced a severe drought for several years, making farming very difficult and causing a migration from the area to California. Popularized by the John Steinbeck novel The Grapes of Wrath.
73. Herbert Hoover (president from 1929-1933)
A Republican who was in office when the Depression hit, Hoover believed in "rugged individualism", or the idea that America would pull out of the economic trouble by working hard. He was heavily criticized for not using the powers of the federal government to help, and lost the 1932 election in a landslide.
74. Franklin D. Roosevelt (president from 1933-1945)
The Democrat who defeated Hoover in 1932 by promising the New Deal, a series of government economic and social programs targeted to help people who were struggling.
75. Fireside chats
Radio addresses given by President Roosevelt where he intended to reassure the American public by explaining how the government was working to help them during the economic crisis.
76. The New Deal
A series of government programs enacted by Roosevelt and the Congress to help combat the Depression.
77. Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)
Government insurance to for people's bank accounts so people could be confident about the money they deposited in the banks.
78. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)
A government agency that regulates the stock market.
79. Social Security Act
The most important act of the New Deal, this program provided unemployment insurance, aid to the disabled, and pensions for retired persons.
80. Court Packing incident
The Supreme Court had ruled several New Deal programs unconstitutional, so President Roosevelt attempted to add more members to the Supreme Court so it would be friendlier to his programs. He was roundly criticized for this attempt to bypass the Constitution.
WORLD WAR II (1939-1945) -
A global conflict involving the Allies (Great Britain, the Soviet Union, and the U.S.) against the Axis Powers (Germany, Italy [later part of the Allies], and Imperial Japan) that was fought in northern Africa, Europe, and in the Pacific Ocean.
Important dates -
World War II begins when Germany invaded Poland
The Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor, bringing the United States into the war.
Germany was defeated to end the war in Europe; a few months later, the U.S. dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki to end the war in the Pacific.
81. Causes of WWII
Harsh treatment of Germany after WWI and the Great Depression created the circumstances that led to the rise of dictators (Mussolini in Italy, Hitler in Germany, and Tojo in Japan), fascism and totalitarianism in Europe and Japan, Germany's capture of land (Czechoslovakia and Poland), and Japan's imperialism (invasion of China and Southeast Asia).
82. Flying Tigers
A group of American pilots who volunteered to fly missions in China; their efforts represent the first fighting for America and preventing the Japanese from expanding, and their success was one of the few bright spots for the U.S. in the early part of the war.
83. Attack on Pearl Harbor (1941)
On December 7th, 1941, the Japanese launched a surprise attack on the U.S. fleet in Hawaii that forced the U.S. to enter the war.
84. Internment of Japanese-Americans
President Roosevelt signed Executive Order 9066, which cleared the way for the U.S. government to force 100,000 Japanese-Americans to relocate to crowded prison camps for the duration of WWII.
85. U.S. Office of War Information (OWI)
A government agency that used propaganda to show Americans how they could contribute to the war effort.
In an effort to save materials for the war effort, the government limited the amount of products (coffee, sugar, rubber, gasoline, etc.) each person/family could have.
87. War bonds
Bonds purchased by individual Americans so that the government could finance the war effort and gave average citizens an opportunity to feel as if they were contributing to the war effort.
88. Victory Gardens
Gardens planted by American citizens to help with the war effort and rationing.
89. Battle of Midway (1942)
A major turning point in the Pacific Theatre, this pivotal battle dealt a severe blow to the Japanese navy and stopped their advance toward the U.S.
90. Island hopping
Allied strategy in the Pacific to push the Japanese back by only invading islands that were big enough to have an airstrip.
91. Navajo Code Talkers
A group of Navajo Indians who served in the United States Marine Corps and used their unique language to provide an unbreakable code for the Allied war effort.
92. Admiral Chester Nimitz
Soft-spoken commander of the American forces in the Pacific from Fredericksburg, Texas.
93. General Douglas MacArthur
Army general who commanded the Allied ground forces in the Pacific. As the head of the Philippine army when the Japanese invaded, he famously said "I shall return" as he left the islands.
94. Invasion of Normandy (D-Day, 1944)
On June 6th, 1944, the Allies executed the largest amphibious assault in human history in northern France. Also known as Operation Overlord, the successful landing gave the Allies another place from which to drive back Nazi Germany.
95. General George Marshall
As Chief of Staff for the U.S. Army during WWII, he organized the entire Allied war effort from Washington D.C.
96. General Dwight D. Eisenhower
The Supreme Allied Commander in Europe during WWII. He planned the D-Day Invasion as well as organized all Allied forces in the European Theatre.
97. General Omar Bradley
As commander of the 1st Army in Europe, he was known as a calm, able military commander.
98. General George Patton
Daring and outspoken tank commander of the 3rd Army who was well-known for his profanity and outbursts as well as his brilliant military leadership.
99. Battle of the Bulge (1944)
Hitler attempted to make one final push to break the Allied lines, and while it did cause a "bulge" in the line, the Allies were able to repel the attack. The Allied victory marked the beginning of the end of the war in Europe.
100. Tuskegee Airmen
A squadron of black pilots whose incredible ability and success paved the way for Truman's desegregation of the U.S. military (1948).
101. The Holocaust
As the Allied marched toward Berlin, they came across dozens of camps where various "undesirables", such as Jews, Gypsies, Slavs, and homosexuals, were imprisoned and murdered.
102. Vernon Baker
A black man who was awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor in 1997 for his heroic actions in Italy during WWII. Historians found that he had been denied the award in 1945 because of his race.
103. Harry Truman (1945-1953)
Roosevelt's vice president who took over after Roosevelt's death. He is best remembered for having made the difficult decision to drop the atomic bombs on Japan.
104. Manhattan Project
A top-secret U.S. government project designed to create an atomic bomb.
105. Atomic bombings
In an effort to avoid a full-scale invasion of the Japanese islands, President Truman decided to drop atomic bombs on the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. After witnessing the terrible destruction, the Japanese surrendered unconditionally, bringing WWII to an end.
THE COLD WAR (1945-1991) -
An extended political and economic conflict between the United States and the Soviet Union. Although fighting did occur in Korea and Vietnam, the term "cold war" comes from the fact that there was never open hostilities between the countries.
A policy of the U.S. during the Cold War where they would prevent communism from spreading to other nations; first suggested by George Kennan in the Long Telegram.
107. Truman Doctrine
U.S. policy that gave military and economic aid to countries threatened by communism.
108. United Nations (1945)
International organization formed after WWII to serve as a peacekeeper in world conflicts.
109. Marshall Plan (1948)
Program proposed by Secretary of State (and former Army Chief of Staff) George Marshall to help European countries rebuild after WWII and help them avoid communist revolts.
110. Berlin Airlift (1948-1949)
U.S. and British operation that flew food and supplies into West Berlin after the city was blockaded by the Soviet Union.
111. Korean War (1950-1953)
Korea was divided along the 38th parallel after WWII, and with Soviet backing, the communist government in North Korea invaded South Korea in an attempt to unify the peninsula. The conflict represents one of the first U.S. attempts at containment, and it ended in 1953 with Korea divided along almost the exact same lines as before.
112. North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO, 1949)
A military alliance formed between the U.S., Canada, and ten other western European countries.
113. Warsaw Pact (1955)
The Soviet Union's answer to NATO, when the nation formed a military alliance with several eastern European countries.
114. Arms race
The nuclear arms race was a competition for supremacy between the U.S. and the Soviet Union; at its height, both countries had tens of thousands of nuclear weapons.
115. 2nd Red Scare
A period after WWII where the fear of communism spread into many aspects of American lives; it is defined by government investigations, civil rights violations, and an overall sense of dread permeated the country.
116. House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC)
A group from the House of Representatives that investigated individuals in the government and Hollywood who were suspected of being communist sympathizers.
Named for Senator Joseph McCarthy, who famously accused individuals of being communist sympathizers, the term is used to describe a situation where accusations are made without evidence.
118. Venona Papers
Decoded Soviet messages that confirmed the presence of communist spies in the U.S., including famous individuals such as Alger Hiss and Julius and Ethel Rosenberg.
The first man-made satellite launched into outer space by the Soviet Union; the success of the launch sent shockwaves through the U.S., causing the country to increase its education spending, especially in the areas of science, math, and engineering.
120. Space Race
A competition between the U.S. and Soviet Union for supremacy in space exploration; the Space Race was symbolic for both countries as domination in the Space Race would be a sign of technological and ideological superiority. The U.S. "won" the Space Race in 1969 when Apollo 11, piloted by Neil Armstrong, landed and on the moon.
121. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
The U.S.'s space agency that worked to send Americans to outer space; the agency's work eventually resulted in the U.S. landing a man on the moon in 1969.
122. G.I. Bill (1944)
Law that provided military veterans with financial benefits to further their careers and education.
123. Baby Boom
A period from the end of WWII until the mid-1960s that was marked by unusually high birth rates.
The movement of people into communities located on the outskirts of cities; Levittown, New York, was the first suburb community.
125. Rock 'n roll
A form of music created in the 1950s; the most popular rock artist of the generation was Elvis Presley, and rock music was often seen as a rebellion against social norms.
126. Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)
A standoff between the U.S. and the Soviet Union when it was discovered that the Soviets were installing nuclear missile sites that, if active, would be able to reach the U.S. mainland; this crisis represents the closest the two countries ever came to open conflict.
127. Berlin Wall (1961)
A physical barrier separating U.S.-controlled West Berlin and Soviet-controlled East Berlin; the wall stood for 28 years before people on both sides began tearing it down in 1989.
128. Vietnam War (1954-1975)
A Cold War-era conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia for 21 years; similar to the Korean War, the U.S. was drawn in when communist North Vietnam attempted to forcefully reunite the country under communist rule. The conflict spanned 5 presidents, and saw decreasing popularity as the war dragged on.
129. Tonkin Gulf Resolution (1964)
In response to a perceived attack off the coast of Vietnam, Congress gave President Lyndon Johnson the power to "use all necessary measures" against those that attack the U.S.; the broad language helped cause an "escalation" of forces, where more and more troops were sent into the fight.
130. Domino Theory
The belief that if one nation became communist, nearby nations would soon follow; a popular argument during the Vietnam War, the idea was that if Vietnam fell, so would Laos, Cambodia, Thailand, etc.
131. The Tet Offensive (1968)
A surprise attack by the North Vietnamese against U.S. forces and their allies; while a complete strategic and military victory for the U.S., the nature of the attack caused many back home to question whether the war would ever be over.
132. Fall of Saigon (1975)
By April of 1975, the U.S. had cut off all supplies and aid to the South Vietnamese forces, resulting in an easy road to Saigon, the capital of South Vietnam, for the North Vietnamese army.
133. War Powers Act (1973)
A law passed in an attempt to curtail some of the president's power and authority to send troops into battle without congressional approval.
134. Credibility gap
After the publish of the Pentagon Papers, when it was revealed that the U.S. government had consistently mislead the American public as to the course of the war, distrust in the government by the people grew, creating a "gap" between what the public was told and what they believed.
135. Master Sergeant Raul "Roy" Benavidez
A Texan who became one of the most decorated soldiers to come out of the Vietnam War; in the 1980s, he was awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor by President Ronald Reagan in recognition for his bravery during combat when he volunteered to go rescue a group of soldiers who had been trapped by a superior force.
CIVIL RIGHTS ERA (1940-1975) -
A period in U.S. history marked by increased protest and attention paid to the mistreatment of ethnic and racial minorities. The movement began slowly, and was characterized initially by Martin Luther King, Jr., and his style of non-violent protest. Later, it became more radical and was often marked by violence on both sides.
136. Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
Supreme Court decision that upheld the right of states to pass segregation laws by claiming that "separate but equal" facilities were constitutional.
137. Mendez v. Westminster (1947)
A circuit court ruling that declared the segregation of Mexican students in Orange County, CA, was unconstitutional.
138. Delgado v. Bastrop ISD (1949)
A case originating from Texas that declared that the segregation of Mexican students was unconstitutional.
139. Sweatt v. Painter (1950)
The Supreme Court decided that the University of Texas law school had violated the Constitution by denying admission to Heman Sweatt due to his race.
140. Hernandez v. Texas (1954)
A case that originated in Texas because prosecutors had excluded Mexican-American jury members; the Court ruled that juries must be from the community, and that people cannot be excluded because of their race.
141. Brown v. Brown of Education (1954)
A landmark Supreme Court decision that overturned Plessy v. Ferguson by declaring that segregated facilities were "inherently unequal".
142. Thurgood Marshall
As chief counsel for the NAACP, he argued against segregation in the Brown case using psychological statistics; later, he became the first African-American member of the Supreme Court.
A new political party composed of former southern Democrats who broke off from the Democrats to fight for continued segregation.
144. Little Rock Nine (1957)
A group of students who were prevented from entering Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas, because they were black; it took the United States Army to get them escorted into the school.
145. Orval Faubus
Governor of Arkansas during the Little Rock Nine crisis.
146. George Wallace
Governor of Alabama who famously stood in the doorway of the University of Alabama to prevent black students from entering the school; his stance was "segregation today, segregation tomorrow, segregation forever!"
147. Rosa Parks
African-American seamstress who refused to give her bus seat up to a white passenger and was arrested; shortly afterward, the Montgomery Bus Boycott was organized to fight racial segregation on city buses.
148. Martin Luther King, Jr.
The most famous civil rights leader in American history; he first rose to national prominence by leading the Montgomery Bus Boycott and using the strategies of non-violence and passive resistance to protest segregation. Later in his career, he organized the March on Washington, where he gave his famous "I Have a Dream" speech. He was assassinated in 1968.
149. Lester Maddox
A restaurant owner who became infamous when he was photographed chasing African-Americans from his business with a gun; later, he was elected the governor of Georgia.
150. Malcolm X
A Black Muslim leader who initially argued for racial separation, not integration, and was a major influence on the Black Power movement; he later renounced these views, and was assassinated by members of the Nation of Islam.
151. Black Panthers
Armed militant group that rejected MLK Jr.'s nonviolent tactics in the fight for civil rights; the group was known to commit crimes in order to fund their activities.
152. Great Society
President Lyndon Johnson's series of domestic programs to fight poverty; problems addressed included health care (Medicare, for people over the age of 65), civil rights, and urban decay, and together they represent a significant increase in the government's involvement in American life.
153. Civil Rights Act of 1964
Made discrimination based on race, religion, or national origin public places illegal and required employers to hire on an equal opportunity basis.
154. Voting Rights Act of 1965
Standardized voting procedures by moving them under federal control; eliminated literacy tests and created positions for federal election examiners.
155. Civil Rights Act of 1968
Also known as the Fair Housing Act, the law made it illegal to discriminate on racial or ethnic grounds in housing sales or rentals.
156. Hector Garcia
Mexican-American physician, WWII veteran, and civil rights advocate who founded the American GI Forum, a group dedicated to making sure that Hispanic WWII veterans would be buried with all proper honors.
157. Cesar Chavez
An American farm worker, labor leader, and civil rights activist who, along with Dolores Huerta, co-founded the National Farm Workers Association that was dedicated to improving the working conditions for migrant farm workers.
158. Chicano Mural Movement
Mexican-American artists began painting murals in communities where they felt marginalized that depicted Hispanic political views and celebrating Hispanic heritage.
159. American Indian Movement (AIM)
A militant group of American Indians dedicated to the restoration of American Indian culture and rights.
160. Betty Friedan
Author of The Feminine Mystique, a book that ushered in a new wave of American feminism; she was also the co-founder of the National Organization for Women (NOW).
161. National Organization for Women (NOW)
A feminist civil rights group dedicated to preserving and expanding women's rights in the U.S.
162. Title IX (1972)
A law passed to ensure gender equality in educational institutions; for every male program available on a campus, there must be a corresponding female program.
163. Roe v. Wade (1971)
The Supreme Court declared that a pregnant woman's body was protected by a "right to privacy" contained in the 4th and 14th Amendments, thus making abortion legal throughout the U.S.
164. Affirmative action
Sometimes referred to as "positive" or "reverse" discrimination, these are policies that require companies and government organizations to take race, sex, and ethnicity into account when hiring; the intent is to provide opportunity for groups that may have been discriminated against in the past.
165. Edgewood ISD v. Kirby (1984)
Texas court case that challenged the way that school districts were funded; it ushered in so-called "Robin Hood" legislation, where richer districts are required to send money to poorer districts.
NEW NATIONAL DIRECTIONS (1970-1999) -
After the tumultuous decade of the 1960s, the U.S. entered a period of decline in the 1970s. The presidential scandal of Watergate, the loss in Vietnam, an economy that experienced stagflation (rising prices and rising unemployment), and the taking of American hostages in Iran made the U.S. look weak and ineffective on the world stage.
166. Silent majority
President Richard Nixon's nickname for the "non-shouters", large groups of middle-class Americans who did not participate in protests; this group, which desired the return of law and order, helped elect Nixon in 1968.
The easing of tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union.
168. Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT)
A direct result of détente, SALT was a treaty reducing the number of intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) that the U.S. and Soviet Union could possess.
169. Environmental Protection Act (1970)
In response to popular opinion that the U.S. should do a better job taking care of the environment, this law was passed and created the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), a government organization that would regulate businesses and enforce environmental laws.
170. Nixon visits China (1972)
In an effort to normalize relations with China, President Nixon became the first U.S. president to visit mainland China since the communist takeover in 1949. Due to his visit, China and the U.S. were able to start an economic relationship that continues to this day.
171. 1973 Oil Crisis
The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) reduced the amount of oil exported to the U.S. in response to our support of Israel; the result was catastrophic, with gas prices more than doubling in a span of just 5 months.
172. Watergate scandal
A years-long scandal where it was revealed that President Richard Nixon (Republican) had engaged in a conspiracy to cover-up a break-in at the Democratic National Headquarters. He was eventually caught when it became public that he had recorded telephone conversations where he was admitting his role in the cover-up. In order to avoid being impeached, Nixon became the first (and only) president in U.S. history to resign from office.
173. Panama Canal Treaty (1977)
President Jimmy Carter, in an effort to rehabilitate America's reputation in the world, signed this treaty that returned control of the territory surrounding the Panama Canal back to Panama by the year 2000; today, the Panama Canal is run by the country of Panama.
174. Camp David Accords (1978)
In an effort to reach peace in the Middle East, President Carter hosted the leaders of Israel and Egypt; as a result, the two signed this peace agreement, which ended a 30-year period of war. The Egyptian president, Anwar Sadat, was assassinated 2 years later by radical groups upset that he had made peace with Israel.
175. Iran Hostage Crisis (1979)
After a radical group of religious fanatics, led by the Ayatollah Khomeini, overthrew the Iran government, a group seized the American Embassy in Tehran and held 52 Americans hostage for 444 days; Carter was unable to get the hostages released, and a rescue attempt failed.
176. Heritage Foundation (1973)
A conservative think tank founded to apply conservative principles (small government, personal freedom) to solving the problems facing the country.
177. Phyllis Schlafly
A longtime conservative activist, she successfully led the opposition to the Equal Rights Amendment.
178. Moral majority
A conservative lobbying group founded by Jerry Falwell composed of mainly evangelical Christians.
179. National Rifle Association (NRA)
An organization founded to help teach people firearm safety and training; more recently, it has become a powerful lobbying group that passionately defends the 2nd Amendment.
180. Ronald Reagan
Elected president in a landslide in 1980; a new conservative wave, caused in part by the Heritage Foundation, the Moral majority, and the NRA, along with the Iran Hostage Crisis swept Reagan into office in a historical election.
Also known as "supply-side" economics, it is based on the theory that taxes should be reduced for the top income earners (rich) which would cause increased employment and investment; those benefits would then "trickle-down" to the middle and lower-classes.
182. Peace through strength
Reagan's philosophy that the U.S. should spend money on defense systems to bankrupt the Soviet Union; during the 1980s, defense spending rose 135% and the national deficit grew.
183. Marines in Lebanon
U.S. Marines were deployed to Lebanon to help the government resist an Islamic revolution; in response to U.S. involvement, terrorists bombed some Marine barracks and killed 241 people.
184. Iran-Contra Affair
Presidential scandal that erupted when it was discovered that the Reagan Administration, against directions from Congress, was selling guns to Iran and sending the money to Nicaragua to the group known as the Contras, who were fighting communism.
185. Persian Gulf War (1991)
Also known as Operation Desert Storm, the U.S. led a coalition of nations to Kuwait after the small Middle Eastern country had been invaded by Saddam Hussein of Iraq. Combat operations lasted than two months, when the Iraqi forces were driven back into Iraq.
186. Operation Enduring Hope (1992)
A U.S. humanitarian effort that attempted to solve a hunger crisis in the country of Somalia.
187. Bill Clinton
This former governor of Arkansas was elected in 1992, the first Democrat in office since Jimmy Carter in the 1970s.
188. European Union (1993)
After the fall of the Soviet Union, the U.S. was the world's only superpower, so a group of western European countries joined together in an effort to compete with the U.S. economically.
189. Contract with America (1994)
After Clinton's election, the Republican Party wrote this list of campaign pledges which they guaranteed would be voted on if the Republicans gained a majority; as a result, the Republicans gained majorities in both the House of Representatives and the Senate.
190. Bill Clinton's impeachment (1998)
During an investigation by the government, it was discovered that Clinton had engaged in an inappropriate relationship with a 22-year old intern; after lying about it under oath, the House of Representatives passed articles of impeachment. In the end, however, he was not removed from office, as the Senate failed to convict him.
191. Kosovo Crisis (1999)
After the fall of the Soviet Union, a group of ethnic Serbians began a campaign of ethnic cleansing, so the U.S. intervened with air strikes to prevent the attempted genocide of Albanian Muslims.
AMERICA IN THE NEW MILLENIUM (2000-PRESENT) -
After a decade of relative world peace following the fall of the Soviet Union, the U.S. found itself challenged by radical Islamic terrorism and several domestic challenges.
192. 2000 election
A highly controversial and historically close election that hinged on less than a thousand votes in the state of Florida. Resulted in the election of George W. Bush.
193. September 11th (2001)
Al-Qaeda terrorists, in a plot planned by Osama bin Laden, hijacked commercial planes and flew them into the two towers of the World Trade Center and the Pentagon. A fourth plane was intended to crash into the Capitol Building (where Congress meets), but it was taken back over by the passengers and crashed in a field in Pennsylvania.
194. Global War on Terror
After the attacks on 9/11, President Bush announced a global effort to exterminate radical Islamic terrorism; as a result, international coalitions invaded the countries of Afghanistan and Iraq. It includes those two wars, and several other international operations around the world.
195. Hurricane Katrina (2005)
A devastating hurricane that slammed into the Gulf Coast of the U.S., causing massive destruction in Texas, Louisiana, and Mississippi. The city of New Orleans was flooded when several levees broke and flood waters rushed in.
196. 2008 economic crisis
The U.S. experienced a severe economic downturn caused by a significant drop in housing prices.
197. Barack Obama
The first African-American man elected to the office of president of the United States; he came to the national forefront after giving a speech at the 2004 Democratic National Convention.
I. 1st Amendment
The five freedoms of RAPPS: freedom of religion, assembly, petition, press (media), and speech.
II. 2nd Amendment
Right to bear arms.
III. 3rd Amendment
Citizens will not be forced to house soldiers against their will.
IV. 4th Amendment
Protection against "unreasonable search and seizure"; a warrant based upon probable cause must be issued before any searches or property seizures occur.
V. 5th Amendment
Due process amendment: right against self-incrimination; double jeopardy (being tried for the same crime twice); grand jury requirement; private property cannot be taken without just compensation.
VI. 6th Amendment
Right to a fair and speedy trial; right to cross examine witnesses; right to have an attorney.
VII. 7th Amendment
Right to trial in civil cases where damages are greater than $20.
VIII. 8th Amendment
Right against cruel and unusual punishments and excessive fines and bails.
IX. 9th Amendment
Rights not specified by the Constitution are still protected.
X. 10th Amendment
Powers not specifically granted to the federal government are held by the states.
XI. 11th Amendment
States are protected against lawsuits (e.g. someone who lives in Texas cannot sue the state of Wyoming).
XII. 12th Amendment
Laid out the system of the Electoral College, where a person votes for a president and vice-president.
XIII. 13th Amendment
Banned the practice of slavery in the U.S.
XIV. 14th Amendment
Newly freed slaves are still guaranteed all due process rights regardless of whether they had been slaves or not.
XV. 15th Amendment
Voting shall not be determined on the basis of race; at this time, it granted African-American men the right to vote.
XVI. 16th Amendment
The U.S. government has the power to collect taxes on the basis of income.
XVII. 17th Amendment
People directly elect their senators; previously, senators were selected by state legislatures.
XVIII. 18th Amendment
Forbid the manufacture, sale, or transportation of alcoholic beverages; ushered in the era of Prohibition.
XIX. 19th Amendment
Women's suffrage (right to vote).
XX. 20th Amendment
The starting date for terms of office for president/vice-president and Congress are moved from March to January.
XXI. 21st Amendment
Repealed Prohibition; made alcohol legal again.
XXII. 22nd Amendment
A president cannot be elected to office for more than two terms.
XXIII. 23rd Amendment
Allows the citizens in the District of Columbia (Washington D.C.) to vote in presidential elections.
XXIV. 24th Amendment
Banned the use of poll taxes in national elections.
XXV. 25th Amendment
It lined out the specific line of people that would succeed the president of the United States in case he/she left office before the end of his/her term.
XXVI. 26th Amendment
Moved the minimum voting age from 21 to 18; result of the Vietnam War.
XXVII. 27th Amendment
Any increase in pay for members of Congress does not go into effect until after the next regular election.
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