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US History - Unit 5 - Great Depression and New Deal
Terms in this set (18)
the worst economic dislocation in American history, from about 1929-1940, marked by extreme unemployment, business failures, and falling prices.
Franklin D. Roosevelt
elected President in 1932, he promised Americans that he would put them back to work using a variety of creative ideas and programs. His personal experiences overcoming polio allowed him to sympathize with the suffering of other people.
his book, the Grapes of Wrath, reported on the suffering of migrant farm workers living in camps in California.
her photographs of struggling families and workers recorded the human misery of the Great Depression.
created by long drought and bad agricultural practices in the Great Plains, heavy winds removed topsoil, created massive dust storms, and drove farmers from their land.
FDR's campaign promise to restore the US economy using policies and laws that spent tax money to assist people getting back to work and focused on Relief, Reform, and Recovery.
Shanty towns of the homeless that sprang up on the outskirts of cities, and blamed on the government's inability to address high unemployment from 1929 to 1933.
Radio addresses made by FDR from the White House that reassured the American population and promised a brighter future.
A political activist, she served as First Lady from 1933, acting as her husband's eyes and ears during her travels around the US. Spoke out for the rights of women, minorities, and the poor. Her book "It's Up to the Women," called on them to pull their families through the crisis.
Relief, Recovery, and Reform
The Three R's of FDR's New Deal, using short term measures to tide people over, stimulate economic demand, and fix defects in the American economy.
National Recovery Administration
this 1933 plan sought cooperation between government and business to avoid strikes, but was declared unconstitutional by Supreme Court in 1935
period where 10,000 banks failed during the early Depression and bank runs were common - addressed by FDR with the Bank Holiday, which allowed panic to ease and restored consumer confidence after government inspection.
Agricultural Adjustment Acts
paid farmers to plant less in the hope of increasing crop prices. Initially declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court, the second AAA in 1938 bought crop surpluses and stored them until prices increased for farmers.
Civilian Conservation Corps
gave jobs to young men, such as planting trees, cleaning up forests, and building campgrounds and state parks. Members lived in camps and ate free food.
a monetary policy that ties a nation's currency to gold deposits held in places like Fort Knox.
paper currency, where the value of money is set by the government, and relies on market confidence. Used by FDR to expand the money supply and stimulate economic activity.
Schechter Poultry vs US
A court case that challenged FDR's National Industrial Recovery Act, the Supreme Court ruled that even during an extreme economic crisis, Congress could not give the President powers beyond those granted by the Constitution.
Court Packing Plan
FDR's response to the Supreme Court finding his early New Deal legislation unconstitutional, a questionable attempt to increase the number of Justices to secure passage of his ideas. Rejected by Congress and condemned by the public, the challenge to the Court was abandoned.