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US History - Unit 1 - West and the Gilded Age
Terms in this set (41)
Made the production of steel far more economical, and led to rapid industrialization and a building boom.
Completed in 1869, this reduced the journey from coast to coast to a few weeks and brought Americans closer together.
Alexander Graham Bell
In 1876, this educator for the deaf invented the telephone.
In 1879, he produced the first effective electric bulb, and later created the phonograph and motion picture camera.
Free Enterprise System
An economic system where competition and supply and demand determine what is produced, and individuals are free to produce and sell whatever they wish.
Created in the late 19th century, when railroads, canals, telegraphs, and telephones linked together different parts of the United States, making shipping easier and goods cheaper.
A company chartered by a state and recognized in law as a separate entity. Raises money by selling stock, or certificates of ownership.
A person who starts and manages a business with the hope of making a profit, accepting all risk involved.
The period from 1865 to 1900 when capitalists reaped huge rewards for themselves, while the working classes struggled.
a word coined by critics because of the ruthless tactics employed by businessmen of the Gilded Age to destroy competition and keep workers wages low.
One of the giants of the Gilded Age, he dominated the steel business and crushed unionization efforts. Later became known for his acts of charity.
Giving away money to be used for the public good, such as building libraries, theaters, and universities.
John D. Rockefeller
Made his fortune in the oil industry. He controlled 90% of oil refineries by 1879, and used trusts to dominate his competitors and forced railroads to give him special rates for shipping.
When one company or trust has complete control over the supply of a product, service, or industry.
Sherman Anti-trust Act
1890. Intended to stop monopolies from engaging in unfair business practices, this law was poorly enforced.
used in textile mills and coal mines to perform special tasks, injuries to these workers were common, but they worked at lower rates than men or women.
The theory that government should not interfere in the operation of the free market.
Formed by workers in order to act or negotiate as a group, rather than individuals. Attempted to bargain with owners for better conditions and pay.
Knights of Labor
Formed in 1869 to create a single national union by joining together skilled and unskilled workers. Demanded an 8-hour work day, better conditions, and an end to child labor.
American Federation of Labor
Formed in 1881 to federate groups of skilled workers into a powerful national union. Excluded non-skilled labor and fought for closed shops to improve job security.
The founder of the AFL, he became one of the principal voices of organized labor.
The movement of people from the countryside to towns and cities.
the study of population, such as where people live and why.
crowded single-room apartments usually shared by multi-generational families; frequently without heat or lighting.
organizations that provided jobs and other services to immigrants and the poor in exchange for their votes. Often controlled city goverments through bribery.
The leaders of political machines who dominated voting and controlled the agencies of government. Used control of City Hall to make illegal profits on city contracts.
The movement of people to the United States in search of places to live and work.
For immigrants, a desire to escape oppression, poverty, religious discrimination or ethnic persecution.
For immigrants, a belief that American offered freedom, economic opportunity, and ties to relatives already there.
A wave of immigrants that came to America from 1880-1920, from Southern or Eastern Europe. Most spoke no English.
Neighborhoods where immigrants settled with relatives or others of the same nationality.
Those born in the USA, who wanted to restrict immigration, and believed that the New Immigrants were inferior and worked for unfairly low wages.
Chinese Exclusion Act
First federal law to restrict immigration in the US, suspended these workers from coming to this country, and denied them citizenship.
The line separating areas of settlement from "unsettled" wilderness territory.
The central region of the United States, a vast territory home to millions of Buffalo and Native American tribes after the Civil War.
Klondike Gold Rush
Within months, 100,000 treasure seekers set out for Alaska, lured by the promise of easy riches and precious metal.
This act stated that any citizen could occupy 160 acres of government land, and would own it after improving it for 5 years.
A series of confrontations between federal troops and Native Americans that resulted in tribes being defeated and moved onto reservations.
Land that was frequently undesirable by settlers, where Native American tribes were forced to move and live under federal authority.
1887. Attempted to "Americanize" Native Americans by giving them 160 acres of land to farm.
American Indian Citizenship Act
1924. This law granted immediate US citizenship to all Native Americans in the United States. Indians did not need to give up land or customs to become citizens.