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Final: Immuno 1
Terms in this set (70)
Which of the following acts as an innate second line of defense against potential pathogens by causing localized heat, redness and swelling?
Which of the following is not a property of innate immunity?
Which of the following can innately and also in cooperation with adaptive mechanisms destroy invaders, such as bacteria by insertion of proteins into cell membranes and causing cell lysis?
Which of the following are histamine-containing leukocytes that are circulatory cells in the blood stream and are involved in allergic reactions?
Which of the following serves as the location where certain leukocytes become mature T-lymphocytes?
antibodies are produced in one's own body after receiving a vaccine containing a weakened or killed form of a pathogen
antibodies are produced in someone else's body and then injected into your body to neutralize a threat to your body
antibodies are produced in one's own body after initial contact with a pathogen, such as becoming ill with a cold or flu virus
antibodies cross the placenta into the developing fetus' blood stream
Which of the following is an innate, chemical defense mechanism found as oily secretions of the skin, except for on the lips?
The presence of _______ proteins makes it possible for our immune system to differentiate between our cells and those that are foreign via peptide presentation.
Which of the following potency terms describes the ability of a stem cell to give rise to any cell type or a complete embryo?
A pluripotent, hematopoietic stem cell would most likely be found in which of the following tissues in an adult human being?
red bone marrow
breaks down peptidogylcan cell walls of bacteria
Plasma cells are effect B-cells that produce
Innate immunity is not tightly regulated, is always present, always "on" or active without the need for mediation via antibody-antigen interactions. This type of "always present or always on" condition is a feature of innate immunity called
A group of blood proteins that enhance phagocytosis and cell lysis by activation through a cascade of enzymatic reactions is called:
Body fluids, such as blood and lymph, contain soluble components, such as antibodies and enzymes, which circulate throughout the body's fluids and provide protection via some innate and many adaptive processes. This type of immunity is called
Both C and D are correct
-contains micro-biocidal cytoplasmic granules
-is not a professional APC
Acute inflammation characteristically involves:
influx of neutrophils
The molecule responsible for presentation of foreign antigens on the surface of dendritic cells are
MHC 2 molecules
Neutrophils attack pathogens
By phagocytosis and often killing ingested pathogen as the neutrophil itself is killed
Which of the following leukocytes at maturity express IgE molecules on the surface of their cells?
basophils and mast cells
_________ and ___________ are the most common phagocytic cells in the blood.
neutrophils and macrophages
Phagocytic cells that can be either fixed or wandering; the "heavy-lifters" of the leukocytes
Differentiate into antibody-secreting effector cells and memory cells upon activation
Branched phagocytic cells that are professional APC's
Antibody-secreting effector cells derived from cells that mature in bone marrow in humans
Specifically bind to antibodies, but do not always elicit an immune response
Lymph nodes are often referred to as ___________ and are sites of:
junctional filters / antigen exposure
Cytokines, in general, can be best described as:
chemical messengers, "bell-ringers", and mediators of innate and adaptive immunity
Activation of a naïve lymphocyte results in the production of which of the following clonal cell lines?
effector and memory cells
Which of the following antigen processing steps is NOT part of MHC class II antigen presentation?
peptide transport into the endoplasmic reticulum via TAP - transporter associated with antigen processing
Which of the following WBCs are the "first responders", bacterial-slayers, and most abundant leukocytes of the immune system that can also trigger inflammation?
Professional antigen presenting cells constitutively express _____ proteins on their cell surfaces.
MHC class 2
Which of the following is a non-professional antigen presenting cell of the central nervous system?
Naïve lymphocytes have yet to be exposed to antigen via antigen presentation. These cells lack which of the following characteristics?
Which of the following is a general term that includes all white blood cells?
Which of the following terms refers to virally-infected cells, tumor cells and cells that have been invaded by an intracellular bacterial pathogen or fungal pathogen?
polysaccharide secretion on surfaces that have few tight junctions and are vulnerable to invasion
physically removes pathogens from the surface of the eye
breaks down bacterial cell walls; especially effective against Gram + bacteria
more effective against internal fungal pathogens than bacterial ones
effective against both mircobial invaders by disrupting the osmotic pressure in cells
HLA stands for
Human leukocyte antigen
MHC stands for
Major histocompabability complex
All nucleated cells express which of the following MHC's on their cell surface?
CD stands for
cluster of differentiation
CD molecules function as cell markers and in the case of antigen presentation, they also function as:
Which of the following is an agranulocyte WBC that differentiates into specific forms of macrophages, either in response to inflammation or by taking up residence in specific organs and tissues?
Of the specific stages of phagocytosis, which one most directly involves the function of Toll-like receptors?
adsorption / adhesion
The theory of _________ immunity proposes that soluble mediators in blood serum can react with foreign substances. The mediators referred to in this theory are: ____________.
humoral / antibodies
Which of the following is the correct progression from least differentiated cell to formation of neutrophils?
pluripotent red bone marrow stem cell, hematopoietic stem cell, myeloid stem cell, granulocyte, neutrophil
When myeloid stem cells are depleted, due to myeloid leukemia, disruption of which of the following cell lines would most directly result in an increase in bacterial infections?
loss of neutrophils
Where do plasma cells, in humans, normally reside?
in red bone marrow
Which of the following leukocytes is not phagocytic?
Which of the following immunoglobulin classes is found in secretions, usually in dimeric form, and sometimes in low titer as a monomer in blood plasma?
Immunoglobulins are best described, chemically, as
Which of the following immunoglobulin classes is a monomeric form that is often involved in acute, allergic reactions and found on the surface of certain leukocytes?
Which of the following immunoglobulin classes is found as part of the B-cell receptor complex on mature B-lymphocytes?
A typical immunoglobulin molecule demonstrates all 4 levels of protein structure from primary to quaternary structure. Which of the following characteristics constitutes an immunoglobulin's quaternary structure?
the presence of multiple subunits of heavy and light chain
In the pathway of acute phase response, sequence the following events from infiltration of pathogen through the elimination of that pathogen.
-secretion of IL-6
-binding of CRP and MBP to each other
-phagocytosis of pathogen by macrophages
-secretion of CRP and MBP
-activation of complement pathway
1. phagocytosis of pathogen by macrophages
2. secretion of IL-6
3. secretion of CRP and MBP
4. binding of CRP and MBP to each other
5. activation of complement pathway
Which of the following contributes to immune responses to fungal pathogens, typically via Toll-like receptor interactions?
Chitin cell wall components of certain yeasts
Vaccination with the capsular components of a bacterium, such as Neisseria meningitis stimulates an immune response that protects one against a form of bacterial meningitis. This type of vaccination represents which of the following specific types of immunizations?
artificial, active immunization
Mast cells that are activated by interactions with a specific immunoglobulin class promote:
Which of the following is a primary lymphoid organ / tissue that is the site of production and maturation of B-lymphocytes?
red bone marrow
Which of the following is a stem cell that has the potential to differentiate into only a limited number of more specialized cells and tissues within only one given type of germ line derivative?
two of these choices are correct
Which of the following immunoglobulin classes is pentameric?
Which of the following terms describes the activation of a specific B- or T- lymphocyte from a relatively small population of mature B- or T- lymphocyte cells in response to a specific antigenic determinant?
MHC class I proteins present ___________ to the TCR of ___________ lymphocytes.
altered self and foreign antigens / CD8+
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