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Terms in this set (65)
__________ is bottom-up; __________ is top-down
In order to perceived information from the environment, it must undergo a process of ______________ where energy is converted from one form into another
Detection of a stimuli 50% of the time is the criteria for an __________ __________
Subliminal messages may __________, but they don't _________ _________ ________
prime; produce lasting change
According to Weber's Law, in order to detect a diﬀerence between two stimuli they must
diﬀer by a ___________ ___________ __________
constant minimum percentage
Diminished sensitivity as a consequence of repeated stimulation is ____________ ___________
_______ __________ are mental tendencies and assumptions that aﬀect (top-‐‐down) what we hear, taste, feel and see
Give examples of context eﬀects
When you see a cop car you have the tendency to slow down; Unless you see the whole picture you wont really know what emotion they are showing
Ex). Serena Williams photo; when you hear a sentence and subconsciously adds a letter to beginning of sentence
Give examples of how motivation and emotion can inﬂuence perception
Angry music can cause people to perceive normal actions as different; when someone is angry they will mis-perceive the object; scale of pictures showing emotions of anger and fear are based on what you are feeling then and which picture you choose.
Classical conditioning works through ___________
Be able to deﬁne and identify a neutral stimulus, an unconditioned stimulus, a conditioned stimulus, an unconditioned response and a conditioned response
neutral stimulus: a stimulus that elicits no response before conditioning
unconditioned stimulus: a stimulus that unconditionally— naturally and automatically—triggers an unconditioned response
unconditioned response: an unlearned, naturally occurring response (such as salivation) to an unconditioned stimulus
conditioned stimulus: neutral stimulus once it undergoes conditioning
conditioned response: unconditioned response after conditioning
Uses and limitations of classical conditioning
Uses: helps humans become adaptive
Limitations: acquisition, extinction, spontaneous recovery
_______ ________ works through consequences
Reinforcement __________ the likelihood of a response
______ reinforcement adds ________ reinforcement removes
Punishment ________ the likelihood of a response
_________ punishment adds _________ punishment removes
Be able to identify and apply concepts of negative & positive punishment and
Positive reinforcement: rewarding child with ice cream once they haven't wet their bed for a week
Negative reinforcement: anything you take away that increases the likelihood of it happening
Positive punishment: slapping a child when they talk back
Negative punishment: taking away child's car when they don't respect curfew
Observational learning works through ____________ of mental information
________ __________ are thought to be one neural component that facilitate
imitation and observational learning.
Applications of observational learning
It can be used to teach kids how to do things
__________-‐‐__________ memory lasts only a matter of seconds
__________-‐‐___________ memory is relatively limitless in 'storage' space and 'storage' length
We remember more than we can _________
Multiple choice tests __________; ﬁll in the blank tests __________
3 eﬀortful processing strategies include: __________, ____________, & _____________
Chunking, Hierarchies, Mnemonics
Relating new material to you personally helps you take advantage of the _________ _________ eﬀect,
which helps you process information on a deeper level that is more likely to be retained
Memories are not replayed, they are _________________
According to the ________ ________ _________; using images enhances memory compared to words
Our memories are inﬂuenced by context, mood and state; give examples of each
Context Dependent Memory: if you learn information on land, you are able to better recall it on land
Encoding Specificity: seeing someone's face in a different environment
State Dependent Memory: If you are drunk while you lost your keys, you might be able to find them when you are drunk again
____________ amnesia is the inability to form new memories; ______________ amnesia is the inability to recall old memories
Know the anterograde amnesia studies that demonstrate the two-‐‐track mind
Mind subconsciously remembers things. Man who has anterograde amnesia was told to find waldo and took a minute and then they did it to him again after he didn't remember him doing it and quickly found waldo.
Leading questions give rise to the __________________ eﬀect
It is possible for repeated mental imagery to create ___________ memories
the more time you hear about a memory you were involved in the more likely they are able to recall it as their own
Cognition involves mental activities associated with ______________, knowing, __________, & ______________
thinking, remembering, communicating
How can prototypes inﬂuences our memories?
Memory can morph into prototype
With an __________ you will always ﬁnd the answer to a problem; with a ___________ you are more prone to error in problem solving
Be familiar with examples of insight and the aha moment
Insight is when the idea finally comes to mind and it clicks.
Ex). when you need to solve a problem and you come up with the solution.
Mental sets can be both helpful and harmful when it comes to solving new problems, explain why
They can keep you from thinking of problem solving in new ways (e.g., you get fixated), but they can also provide information about how to solve a similar problem
Ex). Solving for letters o-t-t-f-f-s-_-_ helps you solve j-f-m-_-m
The ___________ bias often fuels belief perseverance which is ____________________
confirmation; the tendency to cling to one's initial belief even after receiving new information that contradicts or dis confirms the basis of that belief.
Creative ideas must be both ________ and ____________
______________ thinking expands options, ____________ narrows options
Babies ﬁrst develop _________ language; then they develop _________ language
Language ____________ ____________; give examples
Ex). the meaning of words is different based on where you grew up so what one person says might mean something else in your language
When using mental imagery to prepare for a future event, __________ simulation tends
to be more eﬀective than __________ simulation
What forms of cognition do we see in other animals?
using concepts and numbers, displaying insight, using tools and transmitting culture; animals communicate using symbols
General Intelligence vs. Multiple Intelligence
General Intelligence: the thought that your intelligence is only measured by one factor
Multiple Intelligence: The thought that people have intelligence in many categories.
Perceiving, Understanding, Using, & managing ________ are all core components of __________ __________
emotions; emotional intelligence
A psychology exam is an ______________ test; the SAT is an ____________ test
I am as smart as I __________ I __________ ______.
believe; can be
The IQ test is not the most widely used intelligence test today; the ________
________ ________ scale is
Weschler Adult Intelligence
A person with a ___________ mindset believe that traits are malleable (can be learned) whereas a _________ mindset believes traits are stable overtime (can't be learned)
What are some ways to improve your growth mindset?
view challenges as opportunities, replace the word failing with learning, reward actions not traits, use the word yet, make a new goal for every goal accomplished, place effort before talent, redefine genius, think realistically about time and effort.
Stereotype threat may impair __________, ____________ and ____________; give examples
attention, performance, and learning.
Ex). a black student being reminded of their race before they test tend to receive lower scores
How can the environment inﬂuence cognitive function?
In India people who earn money for farming sugarcane have a higher cognitive function than those who do not receive money.
Name and describe the 4 motivation theories discussed in class
Instinct Theory: genetically predisposed behavior
Drive-Reduction Theory: responses to inner pushes
Arousal Theory: Right levels of stimulation
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs: Priority of some needs over others
Sexual orientation is deﬁned as an ___________ sexual attraction
Psychological surveys indicate that approximately _______ % of men and _______% of
women are exclusively homosexual
3-4% of men; 2% of women
Sexual orientation is ______________ inﬂuenced
Sexual orientation is aﬀected by brain diﬀerences __________ inﬂuences and _________
Know the myths about the psychological inﬂuences on sexual orientation
same-sex sexual orientation is not related to how the person raised as in their relationship with their parents; same-sex sexual orientation does not involve fear or hatred of the other sex; Most Gay individuals were not molested, seduced or otherwise sexually victimized by a gay adult.
Exposure to sexually explicit content (either internally or externally) can result in ________
acceptance, ___________ partners or ______________ satisfaction
rape acceptance, devaluing partners or diminished satisfaction
Describe the experiments that demonstrate the beneﬁts associated with belonging
association between mental warmth and physical warmth; When with others pain tends to feel less bad
___________ is associated with the pain of being shut out. What studies illustrate the
overlap between emotional pain and physical pain?
Studies: When people taste really spicy hot sauce they have the tendency to feel rejected.
Recommended textbook explanations
Carolyn Seefer, Mary Ellen Guffey
COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY CONNECT MIND/RESRCH/EVERYDY EXPER
E Bruce Goldstein
Cengage Advantage Books: Cognitive Psychology
E Bruce Goldstein, Robert Hershberger
E Bruce Goldstein
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