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Emotions have 2 ingredients __________ and ____________
physiological arousal and cognitive appraisal
Similarity between physiology of emotions
It is hard to decipher fear, anger, and sexual arousal
Describe the shaky bridge study and what it teaches us about emotion
Men go across shaky bridge and have a lot of adrenaline and at the end they see female researcher and she says if they have any questions to call her. They are mistaking adrenaline for true love. Misatrribution error. Mistaking physiological change for something else. It spills over.
Still being scared to swim with snakes even when I KNOW they can't hurt me is an example of how ________ does not
always precede ________.
The six basic or 'universal' emotions are _________, __________, _________, __________, __________, & __________.
happy, surprise, fear, anger, sad, disgust
Expressing anger can make us __________.
The ______-‐‐_______ ______-‐‐________ phenomenon explains why we are more likely to help people when we are having
a good day
When does money impact happiness?
money can buy food and control which is kind of like happiness; makes a huge difference when money is getting people over the poverty line
Give examples of relative deprivation and adaptation level phenomenon
R.D.: the grass is always greener on the other side
A.L.: when someone wins the lottery they overestimated what it would be like until they win
When you believe you can change a situation, you use a _______-‐‐_______ coping strategy as opposed to a _________-‐‐
_________ coping strategy
Give examples of what control can improve & Tyranny of choice
When retirement home patients are able to choose the time when their visitors come, they have improved well-being.
The more choices someone has the less likely they are to be happy.
Free will is associated with _______ locus of control, determinism associated with _______ _______ locus of control
Self control like a muscle in 2 ways it can be __________ and _________
strengthened and fatigued
Social psychology studies the _________ of the situation
The Fundamental Attribution Error is our tendency to describe others behaviors as a function of their ____________ instead of the _____________
The _______-‐‐____-‐‐_____-‐‐_______ phenomenon describes
Two routes to transform attitudes are ________ ________ ________ and ________ _______ ______. Describe each
peripheral route persuasion: associating something that we feel positive towards with something neutral; and central route persuasion: finding reasons to support it rather than a celebrity endorsement
According to _______ ________ ________ when our actions and attitudes are misaligned we are more likely to change our ________ than our ________
cognitive dissonance theory; actions, behavior
When I yawn, you yawn is an example of __________ __________ also known as the ________ _________
automatic mimicry; chameleon effect
Know the following studies and their ﬁndings: The Solomon Asch Line Judgment Study, The Stanley Milgram Study Electric Shock Study, The Phillip Zimbardo Stanford Prison Experiment
Solomon Asch study: standard line vs. comparison line; if everyone says wrong answer publicly than you are more likely to also say wrong answer even though you know its wrong
Electric Shock Study- Stanley Milgram: shock and word association experiment- people gradually work their way up to 450 volts and people usually drop out relatively early
Stanford Prison Experiment-Phillip Zimbardo: role playing affects attitude, showed the way we play out in the context of roles, either person assigned prison guard or prisoner to 1st year students
The combination of ________ and _________ (or deindividuation) can lead individuals to act out towards others in more violent or aggressive ways
arousal and anonymity
How do groups become polarized? What are the consequences for prejudice?
They gradually move to opposite ends over time. They associate with people who have similar beliefs thus becoming more radical. If people who are surrounded with people who affirm your beliefs you grow more prejudice.
Prejudice is an _________; Discrimination is an ___________
Not supporting interracial marriage is a form of _________ _________; sitting further away from an outgroup member on a bus is a ____________
explicit prejudice; microagression
Name the 4 types of Implicit Prejudice we discussed and their examples
Implicit Racial Associations: if good is related to European Americans you are more likely to pair the words with good
Unconscious Patronization: All participants were given the same paper to grade but they either had the name Jamal or Jack on the paper. The paper with Jamal received a higher grade because they held lower standards for Jamal.
Race Influenced Perception: The skin color of the person is associated with how we perceive an object they have possession of.
Reflexive Bodily Response: They look at EMG (face thingy) responses when viewing white vs. black faces
According to ________ _______; prejudice oﬀers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame
The idea that familiarity breeds liking; such with the image of ourselves in the mere is known as the ________ _________ _________
Other Race Effect
The decreased likelihood to help an individual in need as the number of potential helpers increases is known as the ___________ _________
Know the 3 theories about the norms of helping
Social Exchange Theory: will helping be beneficial
Social-Responsibility Norm: man throwing himself over the person who fell into subway tracks
Reciprocity Norm: If someone helps you, you will more likely help them
A psychological disorder is deﬁned as a _______ _________ ________ in an individual's _________, __________, regulation, or ________.
clinically significant disturbance; cognition, emotion, regulation or behavior
Two key factors to determine 'clinically signiﬁcant' are if the symptoms ________ an individual's daily life or if they cause harm or ________ for the individual or others.
According to the medical model psychological disorders have _______ _______ that can be _______, ________, and in most cases, cured.
physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated
What are the goals of disorder classiﬁcation?
Describe the symptoms of a disorder
Predict the disorder's future course
Suggest future appropriate treatment
Prompt research into its causes
How can labels inﬂuence perceptions of individuals suﬀering from a mental illness?
people relate mental illness with violence and view people with mental illnesses differently
It is estimated that 1 in _____ American's suﬀer from a diagnosable mental disorder
______ ________ is the tendency to believe we are experiencing the symptoms of a disease or illness we are studying
Be familiar with the criteria of Generalized Anxiety Disorders, Panic Disorders and Phobias
Generalized Anxiety Disorders: Person is continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal
Panic Disorders: Person experiences sudden episodes of intense dread and often lives in fear of when the next attack might strike
Phobias: Person experiences a persistent irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object, activity, or situations
In OCD, ________ are repetitive thoughts and _________ are behaviors performed to reduce the anxiety of the repetitive thoughts.
Know the diﬀerences between major depressive disorder and persistent depressive disorder
Major depressive disorder patients experience 5 or more symptoms for 2 or more weeks and Persistent Depressive Disorder patients experience mildly depressed mood for at least 2 years.
Suicide is the ________ leading cause of death amongst high school and college aged students
Schizophrenia is characterized by three diﬀerent categories of symptoms. ________ symptoms would include auditory hallucinations, __________ symptoms would include disorganized speech, and _________ symptoms would include blunted aﬀect.
positive; disorganized; negative
Be familiar with the deﬁnition of AntiSocial Personality Disorder including brain diﬀerences for individuals with APD
Definition: Lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even toward friends and family members; impulsive, fearless, irresponsible
Brain Differences: smaller amygdala, 11% less frontal lobe tissue
_________ involves psychological techniques derived from psychological perspective while ________ _______ involves treatment with medical procedures
Psychotherapy; Biomedical Therapy
Diﬀerent types of psychotherapies include _________ __________, __________ ________, _________ ___________, _________ _________, _________ ________ _________
Pyschodynamic, Client-centered/Humanistic, Behavior, Cognitive, Cognitive-Behavioral, and Group and Family
Be familiar with the goals and assumptions of the diﬀerent types of therapies
Pyschodynamic- Childhood problems, Client-centered/Humanistic- active listening and self-understanding/acceptance, Behavior- dysfunctional behavior, Cognitive- negative thinking, Cognitive-Behavioral- negative thinking that leads to harmful behavior, and Group and Family- relationships
Humanistic or client-‐‐centered therapies use ________ listening techniques including echoing thoughts, inviting clariﬁcation and reﬂecting feelings
How do behavioral therapists use classical conditioning and operant conditioning techniques?
Operant conditioning- consequences drive behavior
Classical Conditioning- counterconditioning is used to evoke new responses to stimuli
Cognitive therapies seek to implement new, more _________ ways of ________
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy seeks to address both unhealthy patterns of _______ and also to establish new ________
What are the three basic beneﬁts of all psychotherapies?
1. Hope for demoralized people 2. New perspective for oneself and the world 3. Empathetic, trusting, and caring relationship
The compatibility between a client and a therapist, often referred to as a ________ ________ emphasizes the importance of _______ over _______
therapeutic alliance; who over how
Identify APAs suggestions for when to seek a therapist
1. Feelings of hopelessness 2. Thoughts of suicide 3. Sudden mood shifts 4. Disruptive Fears 5. Depression
Biomedical therapies most commonly used treatments are ______ ________
Many psychologists believe it is best to use ______ _______ in conjunction with ______ _______.
drug therapy; psychotherapy
List the three other biomedical therapies discussed in class
Electroconvulsive Therapy, Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Simulation, Deep Brain Simulation
What are the components of lifestyle change that have been shown to reduce experiences with depression?
Recommended textbook explanations
C. Nathan DeWall, David G Myers
Richard A. Kasschau
C. Nathan DeWall, David G Myers
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