57 terms

ENGLISH 11 Literary Terms w/images.

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Terms in this set (...)

Dialect
The language used by the people of a specific area, class, district, or any group of people. This includes people, spelling, sounds, grammar, and pronunciation.
Apostrophe
A term used in poetry when a speaker addresses someone or something that isn't present in the poem.
Synecdoche
The use of a part of something that refers to the whole or vice versa.
Personification
Refers to the practice of attaching human traits and characteristics with inanimate objects, phenomena, and animals.
Satire
The practice of making fun of a human weakness or character flaw.
Metaphor
Refers to a meaning or identity ascribed to one subject by way of another.
Simile
The practice of drawing parallels or comparisons between two unrelated and dissimilar things, people, places, and concepts.
Allusion
A figure of speech whereby the author refers to a subject as a place, event, or literary work by a way of passing reference.
Atmosphere
Refers to the feeling, emotion, or mood a writer conveys to a reader through the description of setting and objects.
Tone
The perspective or attitude that the author adopts with regards to a specific character, place, or development.
IRONY: verbal
the speaker's intention is the opposite of what he/she says
...
(EX) sarcasm
IRONY: dramatic
occurs when the audience knows a key piece of information that the character does not
IRONY: situational
occurs when the actual result of a situation is different from what you would expect it to be
allegory
a figure of speech in which abstract ideas and principles are described in terms of character figures
...
- extended metaphor
foreshadowing
when a writer gives the audience a hint of what will come later
denouement
the resolution of the issue of a complicated plot in fiction
...
- at the end of the story
- (if it has a denouement)
- (aka resolution)
CHARACTER TYPES:
...
flat
- no character growth, supporting character
- stereotypical, creates atmosphere
- no depth, simple
NEVER BOTH FLAT & ROUND
...
round
- depth
- main character, growth
- complex, multi-dimensional
round character
dynamic
- also goes through changes
- important
dynamic character
NEVER BOTH DYNAMIC & STATIC
...
static
- does not undergo a lot of change
- pretty uninteresting , but it is okay
- unlike flat character
static character
stock
- a recognizable character
- seen referenced a lot
- stereotypes
CHARACTER TYPES
connotation
A meaning that is implied by a word apart from the thing which it describes explicitly
...
EX) A dove implies peace.
- secondary meaning/association
denotation
A literal or dictionary meaning of a word in contrast to its associated meaning
denotation
EX) Vegetables are inexpensive (cheap).
- explicit
hyperbole
A figure of speech that involves exaggeration of ideas for the sake of emphasis
...
- EX) Your suitcase weighs a ton!
- I'm starving.
understatement
A figure of speech that is employed by writers or speakers to intentionally make a situation seem less important than it really is
...
EX) If you get $70 million dollars and you say you are happy.
imagery
To use figurative language to represent objects, actions, and ideas in such a way that it appeals to our physical sense
...
EX) The room was dark.
- visual description
foil
A character that shows qualities that contrast the qualities of another character to try to highlight the traits of the other character.
diction
A style of speaking or writing determined by the speaker or writer.
inversion
AKA anastrophe;
literary technique in which the normal order of words is reversed in order to achieve a particular emphasis.
litotes
A figure of speech that is an understatement and uses double negatives. A positive statement is expressed by negating its opposite expressions.
chiasmus
Rhetorical device in which two or more cases are balanced against each other by the reversal of their structures in oder to produce an artistic effect.
subtext
• an underlying or implied meaning in writing or dialogue
• (theme/anything else)
• hidden meaning
• ex.) This has a unique taste. Do you know what it is?
epigram
• a short, insightful statement that is humorous/witty
• ex.) I can resist everything but temptation.
conceit
an elaborate, unlikely metaphor
enjambment

(v. end-stopped line)
• usually seen in poetry
• the continuation of a sentence without a period

• If there is punctation at the end of the line, it is end-stopped.
• No punctuation at the end of the line; enjambment
tautology
•••AVOID•••
• saying things in 2 different ways, but virtually meaning the same thing
• a fault of style, redundant
stream-of-consiousness
• thoughts that someone has
• a continuous flow
ex.) Benjy chapter in The Sound and the Fury
free verse
poetry that doesn't rhyme or have a set meter
sonnet (English & Italian)
• has 14 lines
• is written in iambic pentameter
• each line has 10 syllables
volta
• a turn in a sonnet
• "volta" = "the turn"
• a rhetorical shift or dramatic change in thought and/or emotions
• poems: shift/turn
sestina
• a poem that has 6 stanzas
• each stanza has 6 lines
• with a final group of 3 lines
• for a total of 39 lines
• repetition of the final 6 words that recur in the remaining poem give it a rhythmic quality
• but it does not rhyme
• basic function is to highlight an idea
villanelle
• has 19 lines: 5 tercets, a quatrain & a couplet at the end of the quatrain
• divided into 3 segments
• repeats a few lines throughout
• builds up the intensity and tone of a poem

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