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A-Band
The region of the sarcomere where myosin filaments are predominantly seen with minor overlap of the actin filaments
Abduction
A movement in the frontal plane away from the midline of the body
Acceleration
When a muscle exerts more force than is being placed on it, the muscle will shorten. Also known as concentric contraction or force production
Acidosis
The accumulation of excessive hydrogen that causes increased acidity of the blood and muscle
Actin
One of the two major myofilaments, actin is the thin filament that acts along with myosin to produce muscle contraction
Action potential
Nerve impulse that allows neurons to to transmit information
Active flexibility
The ability of agonists and synergists to move a limb through the full range of motion while their functional antagonist is being stretched
Active-isolated stretch
The process of using agonists and synergists to dynamically move the joint into a range of motion
Acute variables
Important components that specify how each exercise is to be performed
Adaptive
Capable of changing for a specific use
Adduction
Movement in the frontal plane back toward the midline of the body
Adenosine diphosphate (ADP)
A high energy compound occurring in all cells from which adenosine triphisphate(ATP) is formed
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
Energy storage and transfer unit within the cells of the body
Adequate intake (AI)
A recommended average daily nutrient intake level, based on observed(or experimentally determined) approximations or estimates of nutrient intake that are assumed to be adequate for a group of healthy people; this is used when RDA cannot be determined
Advanced stage
The second stage of the dynamic pattern perspective theory when learners gain the ability to alter and manipulate the movements more efficiently to adapt to environmental changes
Aerobic
Activities requiring oxygen
Afferent neurons
Aka sensory neurons gather incoming sensory information from the environment and deliver it to the central nervous system
Agility
The ability to accelerate decelerate, stabilize and change direction quickly while maintaining proper posture
Agonist
Muscles that are the primary movers in a joint motion. Also known as prime movers
Alarm reaction
The first stage of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS) the initial reaction to a stressor
Altered reciprocal inhibition
The concept of muscle inhibition, caused by a tight agonist, which inhibits it's functional antagonist
Amortization phase
The electromechanical delay a muscle experiences in the transition from eccentric to concentric muscle action
Anaerobic
Activities that do not require oxygen
Anaerobic threshold
The point during high intensity activity when the body can no longer meet its demand for oxygen and anaerobic metabolism predominated, also called lactate threshold
Anatomic position
The position with the body erect with the arms at the sides and palms forward. Important in anatomy because it is the position of reference for a atomic nomenclature.
Annual plan
Generalized training plan that spans 1 yr to show when the client will progress between phases
Antagonist
Muscles that act in direct opposition to agonists
Anterior or ventral
On the front of the body
Aortic semilunar valve
Controls blood flow from the left ventricle to the aorta going to the entire body
Appendicular skeleton
Portion of the skeletal system that includes the upper and lower extremities
Arteries
Vessels that transport blood away from the heart
Arterioles
Small terminal branches of an artery which end in capillaries
Arteriosclerosis
A general term Tamar refers to hardening and loss of elasticity of the arteries
Arthritis
Chronic inflammation of the joints
Arthrokinematics
1. Joint motion
Arthrokinetic dysfunction
A biomechanical and neuromuscular dysfunction in which forces at the joint are altered resulting in abnormal joint movement and proprioception. Also, altered forces at the joint that result in abnormal muscular activity and umpires neuromuscular communication at the joint
Arthrokinetic inhibition
The neuromuscular phenomenon that occurs when a joint dysfunction inhibits the muscles that surround the joint
Articular(hyaline) cartilage
Cartilage that covers the articulate surfaces of bones
Articulation
Junctions of bones, muscles and connective tissue at which movement occurs, also known as joint
Assessment
Process of determining importance, size or value of something
Association stage
Fitts second stage in which learners become more consistent with their movement with practice
Muscle imbalance
Alteration of muscle surrounding a joint
Blood lipids
Also known as cholesterol and triglycerides, blood lipids are carried in the bloodstream by protein molecules known as high density lipoproteins(HDL) and low density lipoproteins(LDL)
Diabetes mellitus
Chronic metabolic disorder caused by insulin deficiency, which impairs carbohydrate usage and enhances usage of fats and proteins
Deconditioned
A state of lost physical fitness, which may include muscle imbalances, decreased flexibility, and a lack of core and joint stability
Proprioception
The cumulative sensory input to the central nervous system from all mechanoreceptors that sense body position and limb movement
Proprioceotively enriched environment
An unstable yet controllable physical situation in which exercises are performed that cause the body to use its internal balance and stabilization mechanisms
Phases of training
Smaller divisions of training progressions that fall within three building blocks of training
Muscular endurance
A muscles ability to contract for an extended period
Neuromuscular efficiency
The ability of the neuromuscular system to enable all muscles to efficiently work together in all planes of motion
Phase 1: stabilization
Goals:
improve muscular endurance
Enhance joint stability
Increase flexibility
Enhance control of posture
Improve neuromuscular efficiency
Training strategies:
Training in unstable yet controlled environments
Low loads, high reps
Prime mover
The muscle that acts as the initial and main source of motive power
Phase 2: strength endurance training
Goals:
Improve stabilization endurance and increase prime mover strength
Improve overall work capacity
Enhance joint stabilization
Increase lean body mass
Training strategies:
Moderate loads and reps
Superset one traditional strength and one stabilization exercise per body part in the resistance training portion of the program
Phase 3: hypertrophy
Optional, depending on clients goals
Goals:
achieve optimal levels of muscular hypertrophy(increase muscle size)
Training strategies:
High volume
Moderate to high loads
Moderate to low reps
Superset
Set of two exercises that are performed back to back without any rest time in between
Phase 4: maximum strength training
Optional depending on clients goals
Goals:
increase motor unit recruitment
Increase frequency of motor unit recruitment
Improve peak force
Training strategies:
High loads
Low reps
Longer rest periods
Phase 5: power training
Goals:
Enhance neuromuscular efficiency
Enhance prime mover strength
Increase rate of force production
Training strategies:
Superset one strength and one power exercise per body part in the resistance training portion
Perform all exercises as fast as can be controlled
Rate of force production
Ability of muscles to exert maximal force output in a minimal amount of time
Human movement system
The combination and interrelation of the nervous, muscular and skeletal systems
Nervous system
A conglomeration of billions of cells specifically designed to provide a communication network within the human body
Sensory function
The ability of the nervous system to sense changes in either the internal or external environment
Integrative function
The ability of the nervous system to analyze and interpret sensory information to allow for proper decision making, which produces the appropriate response
Motor function
The neuromuscular response to the sensory information
Proprioception
The cumulative sensory input to the central nervous system from all mechanoreceptors that sense body position and limb movement
Neuron
The functional unit of the nervous system
Sensory(afferent) neurons
Transmit nerve impulses from effector sites (such as muscles and organs) via receptions to the brain and spinal cord
Interneurons
Transmit nerve impulses from one neuron to another
Motor (efferent) neurons
Transmit nerve impulses from the brain and spinal cord to effector sites
Central nervous system
The portion of the nervous system that consists of the brain and the spinal cord
Peripheral nervous system
Cranial and spinal nerves that spread throughout the body
Mechanoreceptors
Sensory receptors responsible for sensing distortion in body tissues
Muscle spindles
receptors sensitive to change in length of the muscle and the rate of that change
Golgi tendon organs
Receptors sensitive to change in the tension of the muscle and the rate of that change
Joint receptors
Receptors surrounding a joint that respond to pressure, acceleration, and deceleration of the joint
Skeletal system
The body's framework, composed of bones and joints
Bones
Provide a testing ground for muscles and protection of vital organs
Joints
Junctions of bones, muscles and connective tissue at which movement occurs. Also known as articulation
Axial skeleton
Portion of the skeletal system that consists of the skull, rib cage and vertebral column
Appendicular skeleton
Portion of the skeleton system that includes the upper and lower extremities
Remodeling
The process of resorption and formation of bone
Osteoclasts
A type of bone cell that removes bone tissue
Osteoblasts
A type of cell that is responsible for bone formation
Long bones
Long cylindrical shaft and irregular widened ends
Ex. Humerus, femur
Short bones
Similar in length and width and appear somewhat cubicle in shape
Ex. Carpals of hand, tarsals of feet
Flat bones
Thin, protective
Ex. Scapulae, patella
Irregular bones
Unique shape and function
Ex. Vertebrae
Sesamoid bones
Small often round bones embedded in a joint capsule or found in locations where a tendon passes over a joint
Ex. Patella
Epiphysis
The end of long bones which is mainly composed of cancellous bone, and house much of the red marrow involved in red blood cell production. They are also one of the primary sites for bone growth
Diaphysis
The shaft portion of the long bone
Epiphyseal plate
The region of long bone connecting the diaphysis to the epiphysis. It is a layer of subdividing cartilaginous cells in which growth in length of the diaphysis
Periosteum
A dense membrane composed of fibrous connective tissue that closely wraps (invests) all bone except that of the articulating surfaces in joints, which are covered by a synovial membrane
Medullar cavity
The central cavity of bone shafts where marrow is stored
Articulare (hyaline) cartilage
Cartilage that covers the articulate surfaces of bones
Depressions
Flattened or indented portions of bone which can be muscle attachment sites
Processes
Projections protruding from the bone where muscles, tendons and ligaments can attach
Vertebral column
A series of irregularly shaped bones called vertebrae that houses the spinal cord
Synovial joints
Joints that are held together by a joint capsule and ligaments and are most associated with movement in the body
Nonsynovial joints
Joints that do not have a joint cavity, connective tissue or cartilage
Function of joints
Allow for motion and movement, provide stability
Ligament
Primary connective tissue that connects bones together and provides stability, input to the nervous system, guidance, and the limitation of improper joint movement
Muscular system
Series of muscles that moves the skeleton
Epimysium
A layer of connective tissue that is underneath the fascia and surrounds the muscle
Perimysium
The connective tissue that surround fascicles
Endomysium
The deepest later of connective tissue that surround da individual muscle fibers
Tendons
Connective tissues that attach muscle to bone and provide an anchor for muscles to produce force
Sarcomere
The functional unit of muscle that produces muscular contact ion and consists of repeating sections of actin and myosin
Neural activation
The contraction of a muscle generated by neural stimulation
Motor unit
A motor neuron and all of the muscle fibers it innervates
Neurotransmitters
Chemical messengers that cross the neuromuscular junction(synapse) to transmit electrical impulses from the nerve to the muscle
Sliding filament theory
Thick and thin filaments within the sarcomere slide past one another shortening the length of the sarcomere and muscle and producing force
Type 1(slow twitch) muscle fibers
Increased oxygen delivery, smaller in size, less force produced, slow to fatigue, long term contractions(stabilization)
Type 2(fast twitch) muscle fibers
Decreased oxygen delivery, larger in size, more force produced, quick to fatigue, short term contractions (force and power)
Agonist
Prime mover
Synergist
Assist prime mover
Stabilizer
Stabilize while prime mover and synergists work
Antagonist
Oppose prime mover
Cardio respiratory system
A system of the body composed of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems
Cardiovascular system
A system of the body composed of the heart, blood and blood vessels
Heart
Hollow muscular organ that pumps a circulation of blood through the body by means of rhythmic contraction
Mediastinum
The space in the chest between the lungs that contains all the internal organs of the chest except the lungs
Resting heart rate
70-80 bpm
sinoatrial node(SA node)
A specialized area of cardiac tissue, located in the right atrium of the heart, which initiates the electrical impulses that determine the heart rate, often termed the pacemaker for the heart
Atrioventricular node(AV node)
A small mass of specialized cardiac muscle fibers, located in the wall of the right atrium of the heart that receives heartbeat impulses from the SA node and directs them to the walls of the ventricles
Atrium
The superior chamber of the heart that receives blood from the veins and forces it into the ventricles
Ventricle
The inferior chamber of the heart that receives blood from its corresponding atrium and in turn forces blood into the arteries
Stroke volume
The amount of blood pumped out of the heart with each contraction
Heart rate
The rate at which the heart pumps
Cardiac output
Heart rate x stroke volume, the overall performance of the heart
Measuring pulse during exercise
Count beats in 6 seconds and add a 0
Blood vessels
Network of hollow tubes that circulates blood throughout the body
Arteries
Vessels that transport blood away from the heart
Capillaries
The smallest blood vessels, and the site of exchange of chemicals and water between the blood and tissues
Veins
Vessels that transport blood from the capillaries toward the heart
Atrioles
Small terminal branches of an artery which end in capillaries
Venules
The very small veins that connect capillaries to the larger veins
Respiratory system
System of organs(the lungs and respiratory pathways) that collects oxygen from the external environment and transports it to the blood stream
Respiratory pump
Composed of skeletal structures and soft tissues (bone and muscle) that work together to allow proper respiratory mechanics to occur and help pump blood back to the heart during inspiration
Inspiration
The process of actively contracting the inspiratory muscles to move air into the body
Expiration
The process of actively or passively relaxing the inspiratory muscles to move air out of the body
Diffusion
Process of getting oxygen from the environment to the tissues of the body
Resting oxygen consumption(vo2)
Approx. 3.5 ml of oxygen per kilogram of body weight. Typically termed 1 MET
Fick equation
The equation for oxygen consumption
Maximal oxygen consumption(vo2max)
The highest rate of oxygen transport and utilization achieved at maximal physical exertion. Tests include rock port was test, step test or ymca bike protocol test
Bioenergetics
The study of energy in the human body
Metabolism
All of the chemical reactions that occur in the body to maintain itself. Metabolism is the process in which nutrients are acquired, transported, used and disposed of by the body
Exercise metabolism
The examination of bioenergetics as it relates to the unique physiologic changes and demands placed on the body during exercise
Substrates
The material or substance on which an enzyme acts
Carbohydrates
Organic compounds of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen which includes starches, cellulose, and sugars, and are an important source of energy. All carbs are eventually broken down in the body to glucose, a simple sugar
Glucose
A simple sugar manufactured by the body from carbohydrates, fat and to a lesser extent, protein, which serves as the body's main source of fuel
Glycogen
The complex carbohydrate molecule used to store carbohydrates in the liver and muscle cells. When carbohydrate energy is needed, glycogen is converted into glucose for use by the muscle cells
Fat
One of the three main classes of foods and a source of energy in the body. Fats help the body use some vitamins and keep the skin healthy. They also serve as energy stores for the body. In food there are two type of fat. Saturated and unsaturated
Protein
Amino acids links by peptide bonds which consist of carbon, hydrogen
Gluconeogenesis
The formation of glucose from non carbohydrate sources such as amino acids
Adenosine triphosphate
(ATP)Energy storage and transfer unit within cells of the body
Adenosine diphosphate
A high energy compound occurring in al cells from which adenosine triphosphate(ATP) is formed
ATP-PC system
When ATP has been used it must be replenished before it can provide energy again. By transferring a phosphate from phosphocreatine(PC) to an ADP molecule enough energy can be produced to facilitate one cross bridge cycle. Simplest and fastest of the energy systems and occurs without the presence of oxygen(anaerobic). This system provides energy for primarily high intensity, short duration bouts of exercise.
Glycolosis
Chemical breakdown of glucose or glycogen, converting it to glucose-6-phosphate. Produces greater energy then ATP-PC system but is limited to 30-50 seconds of duration
The oxidative system
Most complex system. Uses substrates with the aid of oxygen to generate ATP. Three oxidative processes: aerobic Glycolosis, the Krebs cycle, the electron transport chain
B-oxidation
The breakdown of triglycerides into smaller subunits called free fatty acids(FFAs) to convert FFAs into acyl-CoA molecules, which then are available to enter the Krebs cycle and ultimately lead to the production of additional ATP
Excess post exercise oxygen consumption
The state in which the body's metabolism is elevated after exercise
Biomechanics
The science concerned with the internal and external forces acting on the human body and the effects produced by these forces
Superior
Positioned above a reference point
Inferior
Positioned below a pint of referebce
Proximal
Positioned nearest the center of the body or point of reference
Distal
Positioned farthest from the center of the body or point of reference
Anterior or ventral
On the front of the body
Posterior or dorsal
On the back of the body
Medial
Positioned near the middle of the body
Lateral
Positioned toward the outside of the body
Contralateral
Positioned on the opposite side of the body
Ipsilateral
Positioned on the same side of the body
Anatomic position
The position with the body erect with the arms at the sides and the palms forward
Sagittal plane
An imaginary bisector that divides the body into left and right halves
Flexion
A bending movement in which the relative angle between two adjacent segments decreases
Extension
A straightening movement in which the relative angle between two adjacent segments increases
Hyperextension
Extension of a joint beyond the normal limit or range of motion
Frontal plane
An imaginary bisector that divides the body into front and back halves
Abduction
A movement in the frontal plane away from the midline of the body
Adduction
Movement in the frontal plane back toward the midline of the body
Transverse plane
An imaginary bisector that divides the body into top and bottom halves
Internal rotation
Rotation of a joint toward the midline of the body
External rotation
Rotation of a joint away from the midline of the body
Horizontal abduction
Movement of the arm or thigh in the transverse plane from an anterior position to a lateral position
Horizontal adduction
Movement of the arm or thigh in the transverse plane from a lateral position to an anterior position
Scapular retraction
Adduction of scapula, shoulder blades move toward the midline
Scapular protraction
Abduction of the scapula, shoulder blades move away from the midline
Scapular depression
Downward motion of the scapula
Scapular elevation
Upward motion of the scapuka
Eccentric muscle action
An eccentric muscle action occurs when a muscle develops tension while lengthening(lowring a weight, landing in a jump)
Concentric muscle action
When a muscle is exerting force greater than the resistive force, resulting in shortening of the muscle(lifting phase, jumping upward)
Isometric muscle action
When a muscle is exerting force equal to the force being placed on it leading to no visible change in the muscle length
Isokinetic muscle action
When a muscle shortens at a constant speed over the full range of motion
Force
An influence applied by one object to another, which results in acceleration or deceleration of the second object
Length-tension relationship
The resting length of a muscle and the tension the muscle can produce at this resting length
Force couple
Muscle groups moving together to produce movement around a joint
First class levers
Fulcrum in the middle like a see-saw(nodding the head)
Second class levers
Have a resistance in the middle with the fulcrum and effect on either side(like a wheel barrow). Calf raise and push ups ex
Third class levers
Effort placed between the resistance and the fulcrum(most limbs of the human body) forearm during bicep curl
Rotary motion
Movement of the bones around the joints
Torque
A force that produces rotation. Common unit of torque is the Newton-meter or Nm
Motor behavior
Motor response to internal and external environmental stimuli
Motor control
How the cns integrates internal and external sensory information with previous experiences to produce a motor respinse
Motor learning
Integration of motor control processes through practice and experience, leading to a relatively permanent change in the capacity to produce skilled movements
Motor development
The change in motor skill behavior over time
Muscle synergies
Groups of muscles that are recruited by the cns to provide movement
Proprioception
The cumulative sensory input to the cns from all mechanoreceptors that sense position and limb movements
Sensorimotor integration
The cooperation of the nervous and muscular system in gathering and interpreting information and executing movement
Feedback
The use of sensory information and sensorimotor integration to help the human movement system in motor learning
Internal feedback
The process whereby sensory information is used by the body to reactively monitor movement and the environment
External feedback
Information provided by some external source, fitness professional, heart rate monitor etc to supplement the internal environment
Anterior tibialis
Right side of shin
-Concentrically accelerates dorsiflexion and inversion
Posterior tibialis
Right side of calf
-Concentrically accelerates plantarflexion and inversion of the foot
Soleus
Lower leg
Concentrically accelerates plantar flexion
Gastrocnemius
Lower leg
Concentrically accelerates plantarflexion
Peroneus longus
Lower leg
Concentrically plantarflexes and everts the foot
Biceps femoris-long head
Hamstring complex
-Concentrically accelerates knee Flexion and hip extension
-tibial external rotation
Biceps femoris-short head
Hamstring complex
-Concentrically accelerates knee Flexion and tibial external rotation
Semimembranosus
Hamstring complex
-Concentrically accelerates knee Flexion, hip extension and tibial internal totation
Semitendinosus
hamstring complex
-Concentrically accelerates knee Flexion, hip extension and tibial internal totation
Vastus lateralis
Quadriceps (outside)
-accelerates knee extension
Vastus medialis
Quadriceps(inside)
-accelerates knee extension
Vastus intermedius
Quadriceps(mid)
-accelerates knee extension
Rectus femoris
Quadriceps
-accelerates knee extension and hip flexion
Adductor longus
Hip
Accelerates hip adduction, Flexion and internal rotation
Adductor Magnus-anterior fibers
Hip
Accelerates hip adduction, Flexion and internal rotation
Adductor Magnus-posterior fibers
Hip
Accelerates hip adduction, extension and external rotation
Adductor brevis
Hip
Accelerates hip adduction, Flexion and internal rotation
Gracilis
Hip
Accelerates hip adduction, Flexion and internal rotation
Assists in tibial internal rotation
Pectineus
Hip
Accelerates hip adduction, Flexion and internal rotation
Gluteus medius
Hip
Accelerates hip abduction and internal rotation (anterior fibers)
Accelerates hip abduction and external rotation (posterior fibers)
Gluteus minimus
Hip
Accelerates hip abduction and internal rotation
Gluteus maximus
Hip
Accelerates hip extension and internal tottion
Tensor fascia latae (including the iliotibial band)
Hip
Accelerates hip Flexion, abduction and i bernal rotation
Psoas
Hip
Accelerates hip Flexion and internal rotation
Extends and rotates lumbar spine
Iliacus
Hip
Accelerates hip Flexion and external rotation
Sartorius
Hip
Accelerates hip Flexion, external rotation and abduction
Accelerates knee Flexion and internal rotation
Piriformis
Hip
Accelerates hip external rotation , abduction and extension
Rectus abdominus
Abs
Accelerates spinal Flexion, lateral Flexion and rotation
External oblique
Abs
Accelerates spinal Flexion, lateral Flexion and contralateral rotation
Internal oblique
Abs
Accelerates spinal Flexion, lateral Flexion and ipsilateral rotation
Transverse abdominis
Abs
Increases intra-abdominal pressure
Supports abdominal viscera
Diaphragm
Abs
Pulls the central tendon inferiorly, increasing the volume in the thoracic cavity
Superficial erector spinae: iliocostalis, longissimus, spinalis
Back
Accelerates spinal extension, rotation and lateral flexion
Quadratus lumborum
Back
Spinal lateral flexion
Multifidus
Back
Accelerates spinal extension and contralateral rotation
Latissimus dorsi
Back
Accelerates shoulder extension, adduction and internal rotation
Serratus anterior
Shoulder
Accelerates scapular protraction
Rhomboid major
Shoulder
Produces scapular retraction and downward rotation
Rhomboid minor
Shoulder
Produces scapular retraction and downward rotation
Lower trapezius
Shoulder
Accelerates scapular depression
Middle trapezius
Shoulder
Accelerates scapular retraction
Upper trapezius
Shoulder
Accelerates cervical extension, lateral Flexion and rotation
Accelerates scapular elevation
Pectoralis major
Shoulder
Accelerates shoulder Flexion, horizontal adduction and internal rotation
Pectorals minor
Shoulder
Protracts the scapula
Anterior deltoid
Shoulder
Accelerates shoulder Flexion and internal rotation
Medial deltoid
Shoukder
Accelerates shoulder abduction
Posterior deltoid
Shoulder
Accelerates shoulder extension and external rotation
Teres major
Shoukder
Accelerates shoulder internal rotation, adduction and extension
Teres minor
Rotator cuff
Accelerates shoulder external rottion
Infraspinatus
Rotator cuff
accelerates shoulder external rotation
Subscapularis
Rotator cuff
Accelerates shoulder internal rotation
Supraspinatus
Accelerates abduction of arm
Biceps brachii
Arm
Accelerates elbow Flexion, supination of the radioulnar joint and shoulder Flexion
Triceps brachii
Arm
Accelerates elbow extension and shoulder extension
Brachioradialis
Arm
Accelerates elbow Flexion
Brachialis
Arm
Accelerates elbow flexion
Levator scapulae
Neck
Accelerates cervical extension, lateral Flexion and ipsilateral rotation when the scapulae is anchored
Assists in elevation and downward rotation of the scapulae
Sternocleidomastoid
Neck
Accelerates cervical Flexion, rotation and lateral flexion
Scalenes
Neck
Accelerates cervical Flexion, rotation and lateral Flexion
Assists rib elevation during inhalation
Longus coli
Neck
Accelerates cervical Flexion, lateral Flexion and ipsilateral rotation
Longus capitis
Neck
Accelerates cervical Flexion and lateral flexion
Two common tests for assessing cardio respiratory efficiency
YMCA 3 min step test and the rock port walk test
What do you call measurable data regarding a clients physical state, such as body composition, movement assessments, etc?
Objective information
What are the two main calf muscles that are responsible for Concentrically accelerating plantar Flexion?
Gastrocnemius and soleus
During an overhead squat assessment what are the probably overactive muscles when the feet turn out
Soleus, lateral gastrocnemius and biceps femoris(short head)
During an overhead squat assessment what are the probable overactive muscles when the knees move inward?
Adductor complex, biceps femoris(short head), tensor fascia latae, Vastus lateralis
Name the muscle that is responsible for conentrically accelerating hip extension and external rotation
Gluteus maximus
What do you information gathered from a client that includes their occupation, lifestyle and med background?
Subjective information
The Golgi tendon organ is an essential component of static stretching because it
Prevents muscles from being placed under excessive tension
deoxygenated blood is pumped from the right ventricle to the lungs through which of the following vessels
pulmonary arteries
dynamic stretching improves soft tissue extensibility by using which of the following
reciprocal inhibition
what stimulates muscle fibers to go through a series of steps that initiate muscle contraction
acetylcholine
which exercise uses a ball and socket joint as the primary mover
seated dumbell lateral raise
if a client exhibits increased force output of his hamstrings and adductor magnus to compensate for a weakened gluteus maximus during hip extension, this is an example of what?
synergistic dominance
which of the following is considered the functional unit of the muscle?
sarcomere
a clients head protrudes during a pulling assessment, which muscle should be stretched?
sternocleidomastoid
what best describes the purpose of the davies assessment?
assessing upper extremity agility and stabilization
the clients feet turn out when performing the overhead squat assessment. What is likely the overactive muscle?
lateral gastrocnemius
during a standing pulling assessment, a client compensates by moving his head forward, which static stretch would be appropriate for this client?
levator scapulae
when spotting dumbell exercises, where do you spot?
at the clients wrists
an obese client who has been diagnosed with PAD should be advised to
strive for 20-30 min continuous aerobic exercise daily
working with a 65 yr old sedentary client. what is an approproate SAQ drill
stand up to figure 8
what is the proper ending position of the back leg during a cable rotation
triple extension
minimum requirements established by the 2008 physical activity guidelines for americans
150 min moderate or 75 min vigorous activity each week
to enhance athletic ability in an endurance athlete, what is the recommended carbohydrate intake 6 days before the event?
4g/kg bodyweight
approx amt of water a sedentary man should consume daily
3.0 liters
what muscle is responsible for eccentrically decelerating hip flexion and internal rotation
gluteus maximus
when performing a squat, an overactive psoas can decrease neural drive to the gluteus maximus, this is an example of...
altered reciprocal inhibition
in a client with lower crossed syndrome, which of the following muscles is lengthened
gluteus maximus
which chamber of the heart fills with oxygenated blood and proceeds ro pump it to the entire body?
left ventricle
force that produces rotation and is responsible for the turning effect of a joint
torque
what compensation is seen in an individual with pronation distortion syndrome
knee adduction
what muscle is lengthened when the upper crossed syndrome is present?
deep cervical flexors
what muscle is shortened in the pronation distortion syndrome
soleus
autogenic inhibition is created through self myofascial release by which of the following
stimulating the golgi tendon organ
what amt of caffeine is recommended for performance enhancement
3-6 mg/kg
Pattern overload
Created by repetitive movements, may lead to tissue trauma and kinetic chain dysfunction
Beta-blockers
Used as antihypertensive(high blood pressure) may also be prescribed for arrhythmias(irregular heart rate)
Calcium-channel blockers
Hypertension and angina(chest pain)
Nitrates
Hypertension congestive heart failure
Diuretics
Hypertension, congestive heart failure and peripheral edema
Bronchodilators
Prescribed to prevent or correct bronchial smooth muscle constriction in individuals with asthma or other pulmonary disease
Vasodilators
Hypertension and congestive heart failure
Two most common pulse sites
Radial pulse: inside of wrist
Carotid pulse: neck, side of wind pipe
Zone one heart rate
65-75%max
Zone two heart rate
76-85% max
Zone 3 heart rate
86-95%max
HRR method
Karvonen method: target heart rate=(max HR-rest HR)x desired intensity)+rest HR
what movement is occuring at the hip joint during the concentric action of the gluteus maximus
hip extension and external rotation
Systolic
Top number in blood pressure reading, represents the pressure within the arterial system after the heart contracts
Diastolic
Bottom number in a blood pressure reading, represents the pressure withing the arterial system when the heart is resting and filled with blood
Body composition assessment
Skinfold
Bio electrical impedance
Hydrostatic weighing
Calculation for fat mass
Body fat % x scale weight
Calculation for lean body mass
Scale weight-fat mass
BMI calculation
Weight(kg)/height(squared)

Weight(lbs)/height(squared)x703
Vo2max tests
YMCA 3 minute step test and rockport walk test
pronation distortion syndrome
a postural distortion syndrome characterized by foot pronation(flat feet) and adducted and internally rotated knees(knock knees)
lower crossed syndrome
characterized by an anterior tilt to the pelvis(arched lower back)
upper crossed syndrome
characterized by a forward head and rounded shoulders
shortened muscles in pronation distortion
gastrocnemius
soleus
peroneals
adductors
iliotibial head
hip flexor complex
biceps femoris(short head)
lengthened muscles in pronation distortion
anterior tibialis
posterior tibialis
vastus medialis
gluteus medius/maximus
hip external rotators
shortened muscles in lower crossed syndrome
gastrocnemius
soleus
hip flexor complex
adductors
latissimus dorsi
erector spinae
lengthened muscles in lower crossed syndrome
anterior tibialis
posterior tbialis
gluteus maximus
gluteus medius
transversus abdominis
internal oblique
shortened muscles in upper crossed syndrome
upper trapezius
levator scapulae
sternocleidomastoid
scalenes
latissimus dorsi
teres major
subscapularis
pectoralis major/minor
lengthened muscles in upper crossed syndrome
deep cervical flexors
serratus anterior
rhomboids
mid-trapezius
lower trapezius
teres minor
infraspinatus
kinetic chain checkpoints
foot and ankle
knee
lumbo-pelvic-hip complex
shoulders
head and cervical spine
purpose of the overhead squat assessment and single leg squat assessment
assess dynamic flexibility, core strength, balance and overall neuromuscular control
Overactive muscles in overhead squat: excessive forward lean
soleus
gastrocnemius
hip flexor complex
abdominal complex
Underactive muscles in overhead squat: excessive forward lean
anterior tibialis
gluteus maximus
erector spinae
Overhead squat: overactive if low back arches
hip flexor complex
erector spinae
latissimus dorsi
Overhead squat: underactive if low back arches
gluteus maximus
hamstring complex
intrinsic core stabilizers
Overhead squat: overactive if arms fall forward
latissimus dorsi
teres major
pectoralis major/minor
Overhead squat: underactive if arms fall forward
mid/lower trapezius
rhomboids
rotator cuff
Overhead squat: overactive if feet turn out
soleus
lateral gastocnemius
biceps femoris(short head)
Overhead squat: underactive if feet turn out
medial gastrocnemius
medial hamstring complex
gracilis
sartorius
popliteus
Overhead squat: overactive if knees move inward
adductor complex
biceps femoris (short head)
TFL
vastus lateralis
overhead squat: underactive if knees move inward
gluteus medias/maximus
vastus medialis oblique
Single leg squat: overactive if knee moves in
Adductor complex
Biceps femoris(short head)
TFL
Vastus lateralis
Single leg squat: under active if knee moves in
Gluteus medius/Maximus
Vastus medialis oblique
Pushing/pulling assessment: overactive if low back arches
Hip flexors
Erector spinae
Pushing/pulling: under active if low back arches
Intrinsic core stabilizers
Pushing/pulling: shoulder elevation overactive
Upper traps
Sternocleidomastoid
Levator scapulae
Pushing/pulling: shoulder elevation underactive
Mid/lower traps
Pushing/pulling: head forward overactive
Upper traps
Sternocleidomastoid
Levator scapulae
Pushing/pulling: head forward underactive
Deep cervical flexors
Push up test
Measures muscular endurance of the upper body, primarily the pushing muscles. 60 second test time
Davies test
Measures upper extremity agility and stabilization.
2 pieces of tape 36" apart on the floor. Most number of taps in 15 seconds, 3 trials
Shark skill test
Assess lower extremity agility and neuromuscular control.
Client hops in a designated pattern from box to box
Bench press assessment
Designed to estimate the one rep max on overall upper body strength of the pressing musculature. Considered an advanced assessment for strength specific goals
Squat assessment
Designed to estimate the one rep max and overall lower body strength. For strength specific goal clients only
Flexibility
The normal extensibility of all soft tissues that allows the full range of motion of a joint
Extensibility
Capability to be elongated or stretched
Dynamic range of motion
The combination of flexibility and the nervous systems ability to control this range of motion efficiently
Neuromuscular efficiency
The ability of the neuromuscular system to allow agonists, antagonists and stabilizers to work synergistically to produce, reduce and dynamically stabilize the entire kinetic chain in all three planes of motion
Postural distortion patterns
Predictable patterns of muscle imbalances
Relative flexibility
The tendency of the body to seek the path of least resistance during functional movement patterns
Muscle imbalance
Alteration of muscle length surrounding a joint
Reciprocal inhibition
The simultaneous contraction of one muscle and the relaxation of its antagonist to allow movement to take place
Altered reciprocal inhibition
The concept of muscle inhibition caused by a tight agonist, which inhibits it's functional antagonist
Synergistic dominance
The neuromuscular phenomenon that occurs when inappropriate muscles take over the function of a weak or inhibited prime mover
Arthrokinematics
The motions of joints in the body
Arthrokinematic dysfunction
Altered forces at the joint that result in abnormal muscular activity and impaired neuromuscular communication at the joint
Function of muscle spindles
Help prevent muscles from stretching too far or too fast
Golgi tendon function
Causes the muscle to relax, which prevents the muscle from being placed under excessive stress
Autogenic inhibition
The process by which neural impulses that sense tension are greater than the impulses that cause the muscles to contract, providing an inhibitory effect to the muscle spindles
Pattern overload
Consistently repeating the same pattern of motion, which may place abnormal stresses on the body
Davis's law
States that soft tissue models along the lines of stress
Corrective flexibility
Increases joint ROM, improve muscle imbalances and correct altered joint motion. Self myofascial release and static stretching. Level 1 of OPT
Active flexibility
Uses self myofascial release and active isolated stretching techniques. Designed to inprove the extensibility of soft tissue and increase neuromuscular efficiency by using reciprocal inhibition. Phases 2,3 and 4 of the OPT model
Functional flexibility
Uses self myofascial release and dynamic stretching. Phase 5 of opt
Static stretching
The process of passively taking a muscle to the point of tension and holding the stretch for a minimum of 30 seconds
Active-isolated stretch
The process of using agonists and synergists to dynamically move the joint into a range of motion
Dynamic stretching
Uses the force production of a muscle and the body's momentum to take a joint through the full available range of motion
Cardiorespiratory fitness
The ability of the circulatory and respiratory systems to supply oxygen rich blood to skeletal muscles during sustained physical activity
Integrated cardiorespiratory training
Way of planning training programs that systematically progress clients through various stages to achieve optimal levels of physiologic, physical and performance adaptations by placing stress on the cardiorespiratory system
General warm up
Low intensity exercise consisting of movements that do not necessarily relate to the more intense exercise that is to follow
Specific warm up
Low intensity exercise consisting of consisting of movements that mimic those that will be included in the more intense exercise that is to follow
FITTE principle
Frequency
Intensity
Time
Type
Enjoyment
Oxygen uptake reserve VO2R
The difference between resting and maximal or peak oxygen consumption
Peak VO2 method
Traditional gold standard measurement for cardiorespiratory fitness. Maximal volume of oxygen per kg body weight per minute
VO2 reserve method(VO2R)
(VO2max-VO2rest)x intensity desired)+VO2rest
Peak metabolic equivalent(MET) method
Energy cost of physical activity. Used to describe the energy cost of physical activity. Relate exercise intensity with energy expenditure
Peak maximal heart rate (MHR) method
Calculating maximal heart rate for establishing training intensity during cardiorespiratory exercise
HR reserve method (HRR)
Karvonen method: method of establishing training intensity based on the difference between a clients predicted maximal heart rate and their resting heart rate
(HRmax-HRrest)x desired intensity)+HRrest
Ventilatory threshold
The point during graded exercise in which ventilation increases disproportionally to oxygen uptake, signifying a switch from predominantly aerobic energy production to anaerobic energy production
core
the structures that make up the LPHC including the lumbar spine, the pelvic girdle, abdomen and hip joint
local core stabilizers
attach directly to the vertebrae, consist of primarily type 1 (slow twitch) muscle fibers.
transverse abdominis, internal obliques, multifidus, pelvic floor musculature, diaphragm
global stabilization system
attach from pelvis to spine. act to transfer loads between the upper and lower extremity, provide stability between pelvis and spine and provide stabilization and eccentic control of the sore
quadratus lumboram
psoas major
external obliques
portions of internal obliques
rectus abdominis
gluteus medius
adductor complex
movement system
muscles that attach the spine and/or pelvis to the extremities
drawing in maneuver
a maneuver used to recruit the local core stabilizers by drawing the navel down toward the spine
bracing
occurs when you have contracted both the abdominal, lower back, and buttock muscles at the same time
levels of core training
stabilization, strength and power
dynamic balance
the ability to move and change directions under various conditions without falling
rate of force production
ability of muscles to exert maximal force output in a minimal amount of time
plyometric (reactive) training
exercises that generate quick, powerful movements involving an explosive concentric muscle contraction preceded by an eccentric muscle action
integrated performance paradigm
to move with efficiency, forces must be dampened(eccentrically), stabilized(isometrically) and then accelerated(concentrically)
Eccentric phase of plyometrics
increases muscle spindle activity by prestretching the muscle before activation. potential energy is stored in the elastic compnents of the muscle during this loading phase, much like stretching a rubber band.
the amortization phase of plyometrics
involves dynamic stabilization and is the time between the end of the eccentric muscle action and the initiation of the concentric contraction
the concentric phase of plyometrics
unloading phase..releasing a rubber band after it was stretched
frontside mechanics
proper alignment of the lead leg and pelvis during sprinting, which includes ankle dorsiflexion, knee flexion, hip flexion and neutral pelvis
backside mechanics
proper alignment of rear leg and pelvis during sprinting, which includes ankle plantarflexion, knee extension, hip extension and neutral pelvis
agility
the ability to accelerate, decelerate, stabilize, and change direction quickly while maintaining proper posture
kinetic checkpoints during running
Foot and ankle: pointing straight ahead in a dorsiflexed position when it hits the ground
knee complex: knees remain straight ahead
LPHC: the body should have a slight lean during acceleration
Head: the head should remain in line with the LPHC, and the LPHC in line with the legs
quickness
the ability to react and change body position with maximal rate of force production, in all planes of motion and from all body positions, during functional activities
general adaptation syndrome
a term used to describe how the body responds and adapts to stress
3 stages of response to stress
Alarm reaction
Resistance development
Exhaustion
Alarm reaction
the alarm reaction is the initial reaction to a stressor
delayed onset muscle soreness
pain or discomfort felt 24-72 hours after intense exercise or unaccustomed physical activity
resistance development
the body increases its functional capacity to adapt to the stressor
exhaustion
prolonged stress or stress that is intolerable and will produce exhaustion or distress to the system
periodization
division of training program into smaller, progressive stages
principle of specificity (SAID) principle
principle that states the body will adapt to the specific demands that are placed on it
mechanical specificity
refers to the weight and movements placed on the body
neuromuscular specificity
refers to the speed of contraction and exercise selection
metabolic specificity
refers to the energy demand placed on the body
power
the ability of the neuromuscular system to produce the greatest possible force in the shortest amount of time
peripheral heart action system
alternates upper body and lower body exercises. distributes blood flow, potentially improving circulation
vertical loading
alternating body parts trained from set to set, starting from the upper extremity and moving to the lower extremity
horizontal loading
performing all sets of an exercise or body part before moving on to the next exercise or body part
acute variables
important components that specify how each exercise is to be performed
arteriosclerosis
refers to the hardening(and loss of elasticity) of arteries
atherosclerosis
buildup of fatty plaques in arteries that leads to narrowing and reduced blood flow
peripheral vascular disease
a group of diseases in which blood vessels become restricted or blocked, typically as a result of atherosclerosis
diabetes
chronic metabolic disorder, caused by insulin deficiency, which impairs carbohydrate usage and enhances usage of fat and protein
hypertension
consistently elevated arterial blood pressure, which, if sustained at a high enough level, is likely to induce cardiovascular or end organ damage
-no supine or prone positions, or when head is lower than heart, can increase blood pressure
valsalva manuever
a maneuver in which a person tries to exhale forcibly with a closed glottis(windpipe) so that no air exits through the mouth or noseas, for example, in lifting a heavy weight. People with high blood pressure should avoid this
osteopenia
a decrease in the calcification or density of bone as well as reduced bone mass
osteoporosis
condition in which there is decrease in bone mass and density as well as an increase in the space between bone, resulting in porosity and fragility
arthritis
inflammatory condition that mainly affects the joints of the body
osteoarthritis
arthritis in which the cartilidge becomes soft, frayed, or thins out, as a result of trauma or other conditions
rrheumatoid arthritis
degenerative joint disease in which the bodys immune system mistakenly attacks its own tissue.
restrictive lung diseaser
the condition of fibrous lung tissue, which results in a decreased ability to expand the lungs
chronic obstructive lung disease
the condition of altered airflow through the lungs, generally caused by airway obstruction as a result of mucus production
intermittent claudication
the manifestation of the symptoms caused by peripheral arterial disease
peripheral arterial disease
a condition characterized by narrowing of the major arteries that are responsible for supplying blood to the lower extremities
Calculating TEE
Weight x 10= RMR
RMR x activity factor=total number of calories expended
Activity factors
Very light 1.2-1.3
Low active 1.5-1.6
Active 1.6-1.7
Heavy 1.9-2.1
Essential amino acids
Cannot be manufactured in the body in sufficient amounts
Isoleucine
Leucine
Lysine
Methionine
Phenylaline
Threonine
Tryptophan
Valine
Nonessential amino acids
Body can manufacture
Alanine
Asparagine
Aspartic acid
Cysteine
Glutamic acid
Glutamine
Glycine
Proline
Serine
Tyrosine
Semi-essential
High rate of synthesis in the body
Arginine
Histidine
Protein reccomendations
Sedentary- .8g/kg body weight
Strength athletes- 1.2-1.7g/kg body weight
Endurance athletes- 1.2-1.4g/kg body weight
Lipids
A group of compounds that includes triglycerides(fats and oils), phospholipids and sterols