100 terms

Thoracic Limb Muscles

Attaches to spine of the scapula
Elevate and abduct forelimb
Attaches to spine of the scapula
Advances the forelimb/Flexes neck laterally
Attaches to clavicular intersection
Advances the forelimb/Extends glenohumeral joint/Draws head and neck to the side
Latissimus dorsi
Attaches to greater tubercle of the humerus
Innervated by Thoracodorsal Nerve
Superficial pectoral muscles
Descending and Transverse
Attaches to greater tubercle of the humerus
Adduct the forelimb
Cutaneous Trunci
Attaches to skin
Twitches the skin
Innervated by Lateral Thoracic Nerve!
Attaches to the manubrium
Draws head and neck to the side
Attaches to first costal cartilage
Pull tongue and larynx caudally
Deep pectoral muscle
Attaches to greater tubercle of the humerus
Adduct the forelimb
Attaches to dorsal border of the scapula
Elevate the forelimb
Serratus ventralis
Attaches to serrated face of the scapula
Supports the trunk
Attaches to spine of the scapula/Deltoid tuberosity
Flexes the glenohumeral joint
Attaches to supraspinous fossa
Extends/Stabilizes the glenohumeral joint
Attaches to infraspinous fossa
Flexes/Stabilizes the glenohumeral joint (FEARS)
Antagonist of subscapularis
Teres minor
Attaches to teres minor tuberosity of the humerus
Flexes the glenohumeral joint
Attaches to subscapular fossa
Extends the glenohumeral joint (EARS)
Antagonist of infraspinatus
Teres major
Attaches to teres major tuberosity of the humerus
Flexes the glenohumeral joint
Tensor fasciae antebrachii
Attaches to olecranon
Extends the elbow
Triceps brachii
Long head, Lateral head, Medial head, and Accessory head (only in canine)
Attaches to olecranon
All heads extend the elbow, Long head flexes the glenohumeral joint
Attaches to olecranon
Extends the elbow
Biceps brachii
(2 tendons in equine)
Attaches to supraglenoid tubercle of the scapula
Flexes the elbow/Extends the glenohumeral joint
Attaches to proximal lateral surface of humerus
Flexes the elbow
Extensor carpi radialis
Attaches to lateral supracondylar crest of humerus
Extends the carpus
Common digital extensor
Attaches to lateral epicondyle of humerus
Extends the carpus and digits 2-5
(Equine extends digit 3, Bovine extends digits 3-4)
Lateral digital extensor
Attaches to lateral epicondyle of humerus
Extends the carpus and digits 3-5
(Equine extends digit 3, Bovine extends digit 4)
Ulnaris lateralis
Attaches to accessory carpal bone
Flexes the carpus
Attaches to lateral epicondyle of humerus
Abductor pollicus longus
(Extensor carpi obliques)
Attaches to lateral cranial surface of ulna
Abduct first digit/Extends the carpus
Pronator teres
(only in small animals)
Attaches to medial epicondyle of humerus
Flexor carpi radialis
Attaches to medial epicondyle of humerus
Flexes the carpus
Superficial digital flexor
Attaches to medial epicondyle of humerus
Flexes the carpus and proximal joints of digits 2-5
Flexor carpi ulnaris
Attaches to accessory carpal bone
Flexes the carpus
Deep digital flexor
Attaches to medial epicondyle of humerus
Flexes the carpus and digits 2-5
Pronator quadratus
Attaches between radius and ulna
(Suspensory ligament in equine)
Attaches to base of metacarpals
Flexes metacarpophalangeal joint
(only large animals)
Attaches to sternum
Adducts the forelimb
Attaches to coracoid process of scapula
Important proprioceptor
Lacertus fibrosus
Long tendon of biceps, connects with extensor carpi radialis, part os stay apparatus
Canine-4 thoracic, 4 abdominal, 2 inguinal
Feline-4 thoracic, 2 abdominal, 2 inguinal
Bovine-4 inguinal
Equine/Ovine/Caprine-2 inguinal
Dorsal elastic ligament
Retracts the claw
Medial digital extensor
(bovine only)
Attaches to lateral epicondyle of humerus
Extends digit 3
Lymph nodes
Superficial cervical-deep to omotransversarius
Cranial deep cervical
Cutaneous colli
(large animal only)
Attaches to manubrium
Covers caudal half of jugular groove
(large animal only)
Between jugular vein and carotid sheath
Assists in swallowing
Carotid Sheath
Contains: common carotid artery, vagosympathetic trunk, recurrent laryngeal nerve, sometimes internal jugular vein
Nuchal ligament
(absent in feline)
Helps support the head, 2 parts-funiculus nuchae, lamina nuchae, continuous with supraspinous ligament
Cranial nuchal bursa
Between funiculus nuchae and atlas
"Poll Evil"
Caudal nuchal bursa
Between funiculus nuchae and axis
Supraspinous bursa
Between funiculus nuchae and spinous processes of T2-4
"Fistulous Withers"
Stay apparatus
Allows horse to stand for extended periods of time with minimal muscular effort.
Tendon of origin of biceps brachii is pulled taught and flexes the glenohumeral joint and extends the elbow. lacertus fibrosus and tendon of extensor carpi radialis keep the carpus extended. suspensory ligaments and proximal and distal check ligaments also keep carpus extended. fetlock is supported by suspensory, check and SDF,DDF tendons and straight sesmoidean ligament. SDF,DDF, and extensor branches of suspensory support the pastern and coffin joints.
Synovial fluid filled sac between tendon and bone to reduce friction
Infraspinatus bursa
Between infraspinatus tendon and greater tubercle of humerus
Intertubercular bursa
(Bicipital bursa in large animals)
Between biceps brachii tendon and intertuburcular groove
Canine-communicates with glenohumeral joint does not in equine
Subcutaneous olecranon bursa
Subtendinous olecranon bursa
Between skin and olecranon
Between tendon of long head tricep and olecranon
Navicular bursa
Between DDF tendon and navicular bone
Daily Fluid Maintenance
kg x 50=mls/day
Fluid losses
Sensible losses (urine) 27-40ml/kg/day
Insensible losses (respiration) 13-20ml/kg/day
Ongoing losses (v/d)
Hydration guidelines
<5% no signs
5-6% subtle skin tenting
6-8% definite skin tenting, slight CRT delay, tacky mm
10-12% skin stays tented, possible shock, CRT delay, dry mm, sunken eyes
12-15% shock, death imminent
Dehydration Fluid Calculation
% dehydrated (decimal) x kg x 1000=ml
plus maintenance/24=ml/hr
Suprascapular paralysis due to nerve damage from trauma, more prevalent in equine due to no acromion
Glenohumeral joint
shoulder joint
Antebrachiocarpal joint
(Radiocarpal joint in equine/bovine)
proximal carpal joint
Carpometacarpal joint
distal carpal joint
Metacarpophalangeal joint
(Fetlock in equine/bovine)
most proximal joint of digits
Cannon bone
Metacarpal 3 in equine
Fused metacarpal 3+4 in bovine
Long pastern
Proximal phalanx in equine/bovine
Short pastern
Middle phalanx in equine/bovine
Coffin bone
Distal phalanx in equine/bovine
Pastern Joint
Coffin Joint
Proximal interphalangeal joint
Distal interphalangeal joint
Remnants of carpal pad
Remnants of metacarpal pad
Collateral ligaments
All joints except glenohumeral joints have medial and lateral collateral ligaments
Ligaments of the large animal carpal joint
palmar carpal ligament, flexor retinaculum, collateral ligaments
Fetlock ligaments
palmar annular ligament, collateral ligaments
Proximal sesmoid ligaments
Distal sesmoid ligament
straight sesmoidean, oblique sesmoidean, cruciate sesmoidean, intersesmoidean, collateral sesmoidean
navicular ligament(impar)
Wall of hoof parts
toe, quarters and heal
Coronary band
junction between skin and hoof
Hoof bottom
sole, frog (central groove/collateral sulcus), bars, bulbs of heel
White line
unpigmented part of stratum medium and stratum internum (where farriers place nails for shoeing)
Point of the shoulder
greater tubercle
in equine-cranial part of greater tubercle
Layers of hoof wall
stratum externum (cuticle), stratum medium, stratum internum
Stratum externum
perioplic epidermis
Stratum medium
coronary epidermis
Stratum internum
laminar epidermis
Corium (dermis)
perioplic corium, coronary corium, laminar corium, corium of the sole, corium of the frog
Digital cushion
along with ungual cartilages assist venous return when horse bears weight on hoof
Joint pouches
dorsal and palmar pouches of fetlock, pastern, coffin
Extrinsic vs Intrinsic
attach limb to the axial skeleton vs extend between bones that compose the limb itself
Extrinsic muscles of thoracic limb
superficial pectorals, deep pectoral, brachiocephalicus, omotransversarius, trapezius, rhomoideus, latissimus dorsi, serratus ventralis
Intrinsic muscles of shoulder
deltoideus, supraspinatus, infraspinatus, supraspinatus, teres major, teres minor, coracobrachialis
Intrinsic muscles of brachium
triceps brachii, biceps brachii, brachialis, tensor fasciae antebrachii, anconeus
Intrinsic muscles of antebrachium
extensor carpi radialis, common digital extensor, lateral digital extensor, ulnaris lateralis, flexor carpi ulnaris, superficial digital flexor, deep digitial flexor, flexor carpi radialis, supinator, pronator teres, pronator quadratus, abductor pollicus longus
Jugular groove muscles
canine-cleidocephalicus, sternocephalicus
equine-brachiocephalicus, omotransversarius, sternocephalicus, omohyoideus, cutaneous colli
crackling sound of bone fragments rubbing together, can also mean the sound of flatus in the bowels
Tuber, tubercle, tuberosity
swelling, nodule, elevation, protuberance on a bone
tapping or perforation
removal of the distal phalanx and claws (declawing)
Carpal bones-canine
proximal-radial, ulnar, accessory
Carpal bones-equine
proximal-radial, intermediate, ulnar, accessory
distal-1,2,3,4 (1 may be absent, 3 is largest)
Carpal bones-bovine
proximal-radial, intermediate, ulnar, accessory
distal-fused 2/3, 4 (1 is absent)
Metacarpal bones
equine-2-4, 3-cannon, 2+4 splint bones-distal ends form buttons
bovine-fused 3/4, 2+5 small dewclaws