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Attaches to spine of the scapula
Elevate and abduct forelimb


Attaches to spine of the scapula
Advances the forelimb/Flexes neck laterally


Attaches to clavicular intersection
Advances the forelimb/Extends glenohumeral joint/Draws head and neck to the side

Latissimus dorsi

Attaches to greater tubercle of the humerus
Innervated by Thoracodorsal Nerve

Superficial pectoral muscles
Descending and Transverse

Attaches to greater tubercle of the humerus
Adduct the forelimb

Cutaneous Trunci

Attaches to skin
Twitches the skin
Innervated by Lateral Thoracic Nerve!


Attaches to the manubrium
Draws head and neck to the side


Attaches to first costal cartilage
Pull tongue and larynx caudally

Deep pectoral muscle

Attaches to greater tubercle of the humerus
Adduct the forelimb


Attaches to dorsal border of the scapula
Elevate the forelimb

Serratus ventralis

Attaches to serrated face of the scapula
Supports the trunk


Attaches to spine of the scapula/Deltoid tuberosity
Flexes the glenohumeral joint


Attaches to supraspinous fossa
Extends/Stabilizes the glenohumeral joint


Attaches to infraspinous fossa
Flexes/Stabilizes the glenohumeral joint (FEARS)
Antagonist of subscapularis

Teres minor

Attaches to teres minor tuberosity of the humerus
Flexes the glenohumeral joint


Attaches to subscapular fossa
Extends the glenohumeral joint (EARS)
Antagonist of infraspinatus

Teres major

Attaches to teres major tuberosity of the humerus
Flexes the glenohumeral joint

Tensor fasciae antebrachii

Attaches to olecranon
Extends the elbow

Triceps brachii
Long head, Lateral head, Medial head, and Accessory head (only in canine)

Attaches to olecranon
All heads extend the elbow, Long head flexes the glenohumeral joint


Attaches to olecranon
Extends the elbow

Biceps brachii
(2 tendons in equine)

Attaches to supraglenoid tubercle of the scapula
Flexes the elbow/Extends the glenohumeral joint


Attaches to proximal lateral surface of humerus
Flexes the elbow

Extensor carpi radialis

Attaches to lateral supracondylar crest of humerus
Extends the carpus

Common digital extensor

Attaches to lateral epicondyle of humerus
Extends the carpus and digits 2-5
(Equine extends digit 3, Bovine extends digits 3-4)

Lateral digital extensor

Attaches to lateral epicondyle of humerus
Extends the carpus and digits 3-5
(Equine extends digit 3, Bovine extends digit 4)

Ulnaris lateralis

Attaches to accessory carpal bone
Flexes the carpus


Attaches to lateral epicondyle of humerus

Abductor pollicus longus
(Extensor carpi obliques)

Attaches to lateral cranial surface of ulna
Abduct first digit/Extends the carpus

Pronator teres
(only in small animals)

Attaches to medial epicondyle of humerus

Flexor carpi radialis

Attaches to medial epicondyle of humerus
Flexes the carpus

Superficial digital flexor

Attaches to medial epicondyle of humerus
Flexes the carpus and proximal joints of digits 2-5

Flexor carpi ulnaris

Attaches to accessory carpal bone
Flexes the carpus

Deep digital flexor

Attaches to medial epicondyle of humerus
Flexes the carpus and digits 2-5

Pronator quadratus

Attaches between radius and ulna

(Suspensory ligament in equine)

Attaches to base of metacarpals
Flexes metacarpophalangeal joint

(only large animals)

Attaches to sternum
Adducts the forelimb


Attaches to coracoid process of scapula
Important proprioceptor

Lacertus fibrosus

Long tendon of biceps, connects with extensor carpi radialis, part os stay apparatus


Canine-4 thoracic, 4 abdominal, 2 inguinal
Feline-4 thoracic, 2 abdominal, 2 inguinal
Bovine-4 inguinal
Equine/Ovine/Caprine-2 inguinal

Dorsal elastic ligament

Retracts the claw

Medial digital extensor
(bovine only)

Attaches to lateral epicondyle of humerus
Extends digit 3

Lymph nodes

Superficial cervical-deep to omotransversarius
Cranial deep cervical

Cutaneous colli
(large animal only)

Attaches to manubrium
Covers caudal half of jugular groove

(large animal only)

Between jugular vein and carotid sheath
Assists in swallowing

Carotid Sheath

Contains: common carotid artery, vagosympathetic trunk, recurrent laryngeal nerve, sometimes internal jugular vein

Nuchal ligament
(absent in feline)

Helps support the head, 2 parts-funiculus nuchae, lamina nuchae, continuous with supraspinous ligament

Cranial nuchal bursa

Between funiculus nuchae and atlas
"Poll Evil"

Caudal nuchal bursa

Between funiculus nuchae and axis

Supraspinous bursa

Between funiculus nuchae and spinous processes of T2-4
"Fistulous Withers"

Stay apparatus

Allows horse to stand for extended periods of time with minimal muscular effort.
Tendon of origin of biceps brachii is pulled taught and flexes the glenohumeral joint and extends the elbow. lacertus fibrosus and tendon of extensor carpi radialis keep the carpus extended. suspensory ligaments and proximal and distal check ligaments also keep carpus extended. fetlock is supported by suspensory, check and SDF,DDF tendons and straight sesmoidean ligament. SDF,DDF, and extensor branches of suspensory support the pastern and coffin joints.


Synovial fluid filled sac between tendon and bone to reduce friction

Infraspinatus bursa

Between infraspinatus tendon and greater tubercle of humerus

Intertubercular bursa
(Bicipital bursa in large animals)

Between biceps brachii tendon and intertuburcular groove
Canine-communicates with glenohumeral joint does not in equine

Subcutaneous olecranon bursa
Subtendinous olecranon bursa

Between skin and olecranon
Between tendon of long head tricep and olecranon

Navicular bursa

Between DDF tendon and navicular bone

Daily Fluid Maintenance

kg x 50=mls/day

Fluid losses

Sensible losses (urine) 27-40ml/kg/day
Insensible losses (respiration) 13-20ml/kg/day
Ongoing losses (v/d)

Hydration guidelines

<5% no signs
5-6% subtle skin tenting
6-8% definite skin tenting, slight CRT delay, tacky mm
10-12% skin stays tented, possible shock, CRT delay, dry mm, sunken eyes
12-15% shock, death imminent

Dehydration Fluid Calculation

% dehydrated (decimal) x kg x 1000=ml
plus maintenance/24=ml/hr


Suprascapular paralysis due to nerve damage from trauma, more prevalent in equine due to no acromion

Glenohumeral joint

shoulder joint

Antebrachiocarpal joint
(Radiocarpal joint in equine/bovine)

proximal carpal joint

Carpometacarpal joint

distal carpal joint

Metacarpophalangeal joint
(Fetlock in equine/bovine)

most proximal joint of digits

Cannon bone

Metacarpal 3 in equine
Fused metacarpal 3+4 in bovine

Long pastern

Proximal phalanx in equine/bovine

Short pastern

Middle phalanx in equine/bovine

Coffin bone

Distal phalanx in equine/bovine

Pastern Joint
Coffin Joint

Proximal interphalangeal joint
Distal interphalangeal joint


Remnants of carpal pad
Remnants of metacarpal pad

Collateral ligaments

All joints except glenohumeral joints have medial and lateral collateral ligaments

Ligaments of the large animal carpal joint

palmar carpal ligament, flexor retinaculum, collateral ligaments

Fetlock ligaments

palmar annular ligament, collateral ligaments

Proximal sesmoid ligaments
Distal sesmoid ligament

straight sesmoidean, oblique sesmoidean, cruciate sesmoidean, intersesmoidean, collateral sesmoidean
navicular ligament(impar)

Wall of hoof parts

toe, quarters and heal

Coronary band

junction between skin and hoof

Hoof bottom

sole, frog (central groove/collateral sulcus), bars, bulbs of heel

White line

unpigmented part of stratum medium and stratum internum (where farriers place nails for shoeing)

Point of the shoulder

greater tubercle
in equine-cranial part of greater tubercle

Layers of hoof wall

stratum externum (cuticle), stratum medium, stratum internum

Stratum externum

perioplic epidermis

Stratum medium

coronary epidermis

Stratum internum

laminar epidermis

Corium (dermis)

perioplic corium, coronary corium, laminar corium, corium of the sole, corium of the frog

Digital cushion

along with ungual cartilages assist venous return when horse bears weight on hoof

Joint pouches

dorsal and palmar pouches of fetlock, pastern, coffin

Extrinsic vs Intrinsic

attach limb to the axial skeleton vs extend between bones that compose the limb itself

Extrinsic muscles of thoracic limb

superficial pectorals, deep pectoral, brachiocephalicus, omotransversarius, trapezius, rhomoideus, latissimus dorsi, serratus ventralis

Intrinsic muscles of shoulder

deltoideus, supraspinatus, infraspinatus, supraspinatus, teres major, teres minor, coracobrachialis

Intrinsic muscles of brachium

triceps brachii, biceps brachii, brachialis, tensor fasciae antebrachii, anconeus

Intrinsic muscles of antebrachium

extensor carpi radialis, common digital extensor, lateral digital extensor, ulnaris lateralis, flexor carpi ulnaris, superficial digital flexor, deep digitial flexor, flexor carpi radialis, supinator, pronator teres, pronator quadratus, abductor pollicus longus

Jugular groove muscles

canine-cleidocephalicus, sternocephalicus
equine-brachiocephalicus, omotransversarius, sternocephalicus, omohyoideus, cutaneous colli


crackling sound of bone fragments rubbing together, can also mean the sound of flatus in the bowels

Tuber, tubercle, tuberosity

swelling, nodule, elevation, protuberance on a bone


tapping or perforation


removal of the distal phalanx and claws (declawing)

Carpal bones-canine

proximal-radial, ulnar, accessory

Carpal bones-equine

proximal-radial, intermediate, ulnar, accessory
distal-1,2,3,4 (1 may be absent, 3 is largest)

Carpal bones-bovine

proximal-radial, intermediate, ulnar, accessory
distal-fused 2/3, 4 (1 is absent)

Metacarpal bones

equine-2-4, 3-cannon, 2+4 splint bones-distal ends form buttons
bovine-fused 3/4, 2+5 small dewclaws

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