40 terms

Myers Psychology Ch.7 (learning)

Ch.7: Learning of Myers Psychology textbook for AP Pysch
STUDY
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associative learning
Definition: learning that certain evetns occur together. The events may be two stimuli (as in classical conditioning) or a response and its consequences (as in operant conditioning)
Researchers: Aristotle, John Locke, David Hume
Example: smell fresh cookies, eat and are satisfied, the next time you smell fresh cookies you will expect eating them will satisfy you again
classical conditioning
Definition: learn to associate two stimuli and thus anticipate events
Researcher: Ivan Pavlov
Example: lightning and thunder leads to lightning and anticipation of thunder with wincing
operant conditioning
Definition: learn to associate a response (our behavior) and its consequence and thus repeat acts followed by good results and avoid acts followed by bad results
Researcher: B.F. Skinner
Example: if rewarded continue, if punished will not continue
observational learning
Definition: we learn from others' experiences
Researcher: Albert Bandura
Example: we see someone solve a puzzle and get a reward so we perform the trick more quickly
unconditioned response (UR)
Definition: in classical conditioning, the unlearned, naturally occuring response to the US such as salivation when food is in the mouth
Researcher: Ivan Pavlov
Example: salivation in mouth due to food was unlearned
unconditioned stimulus (US)
Definition: in classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally (naturally and automatically) triggers a response
Researcher: Ivan Pavlov
Example: food in mouth automatically triggers the salivary reflex
conditioned response (CR)
Definition: in classical conditioning, the learned response to a previously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus (CS)
Researcher: Ivan Pavlov
Example: salivation in response to the tone was conditioned upon the dog learning to associate tone with food
conditioned stimulus
Definition: in classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after assocation with a US, comes to trigger a conditioned response
Researcher: Ivan Pavlov
Example: the previously neutral tone stimulus that now triggered the conditional salivation
acquisition
Definition: in classical conditioning, the initial stage, when one links a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus begins triggering the conditioned response. In operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response
Researcher: Michael Tirrell (1990)
Example: girlfriend liked onions so onions became associated with kissing and onion breath began to send tingles up his spine and arouse him
higher-order (second-order) conditioning
Definition: a procedure in which the conditioned stimulus in one conditioning experience is paired with a new neutral stimulus creating a second (often weaker) conditioned stimulus
Researcher: Ivan Pavlov
Example: animal that has learned tone predicts food might then learn that light predicts tone and respond to the light alone
extinction
Definition: the diminishing of a conditioned response; occurs in classical conditioning when a US does not follow a CS; occurs in operant conditioning when a response is no longer reinforced
Researcher: Ivan Pavlov
Example: tone sounded but no food causes salivation to stop
spontaneous recovery
Definition: the reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response
Researcher: Ivan Pavlov
Example: pause of several house until next tone caused spontaneous reappearing of salivation to the tone
generalization
Definition: the tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses
Researcher: Ivan Pavlov
Example: little Albert was conditioned to be afraid of the white rat and went on to generalize the fear to anything white, furry, or four-legged
ecologically relevant
Definition: something similar to stimuli associated with sexual acitvity in the natural environment
Researcher: Michael Domjan (2004)
Study: learning enables animals to adapt to their environments
law of effect
Definition: Thorndike's principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely
Researcher: B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)
Study: N/A
operant chamber
Definition: in operant conditioning research, a chamber (Skinner's box) containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a food or water reinforcer; attached devices record the animals rate of bar pressing or key pressing
Researcher: B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)
Study: used to explore the precise conditions that foster efficient and enduring learning
shaping
Definition: an operant conditioning procedure in which reinforceres guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior
Researcher: B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)
Study: reward responses close to desired behavior and ignore others to shape complex behaviors
reinforcer
Definition: in operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows
Researcher: B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)
Study: N/A
positive reinforcement
Definition: increasing behaviors by presenting positive stimuli, such as food. A positive reinforcer is any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response
Researcher: B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)
Example: giving you kids an allowance each week if they make their bed every day increases the frequency of the bed making because they want the allowance
negative reinforcement
Definition: increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli, such as shock. A negative reinforcer is any stimulus that when removed after a response, strengthens the response
Researcher: B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)
Example: nagging your kids and not stopping until they make their beds increases the frequency of the bed making because they want your nagging to stop
primary reinforcer
Definition: an innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need
Researcher: B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)
Study: N/A
conditioned reinforcer
Definition: a stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer
Researcher: B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)
Study: N/A
continuous reinforcement
Definition: reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs
Researcher: B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)
Study: N/A
partial (intermittent) reinforcement
Definition: reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower acquistion of a response but much greater resistance to extinction that oes continuous reinforcement
Researcher: B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)
Study: N/A
fixed-ratio schedules
Definition: reinforces a behavior after a set number of responses
Researcher: B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)
Example: maid gets a 15 minute break after cleaning 3 rooms
variable-ratio schedules
Definition: reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses
Researcher: B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)
Example: a charity makes an average of ten phone calls for every donation it recieves
fixed-interval schedules
Definition: reinforces a response only after a specific time has elasped
Researcher: B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)
Example: getting allowance every sunday
variable-interval schedules
Definition: reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals
Researcher: B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)
Example: watching and seeing shooting stars on a dark night
punishment
Definition: an event that decreases the behavior that it follows
Researcher: B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)
Study: N/A
cognitive map
Definition: a mental representation of the layout of one's environment
Researcher: B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)
Example: after exploring a maze, rats act as if they learned the cognitive map of it
latent learning
Definition: learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it
Researcher: B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)
Study: N/A
intrinsic motivation
Definition: a desire to perform a behavior effectively for its own sake
Researcher: B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)
Study: N/A
extrinsic motivation
Definition: a desire to perform a behavior to recieve promised rewards or avoid threatened punishment
Researcher: B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)
Study: N/A
operant behavior
Definition: behavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences
Researcher: B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)
Study: N/A
operant conditioning
Definition: a type of learning in which the behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminshed if followed by a punisher
Researcher: B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)
Study: N/A
observational learning
Definition: learning by observing others
Researcher: Albert Bandura (1961)
Study: N/A
modeling
Definition: the process of observing and imitating a specific behavior
Researcher: Albert Bandura (1961)
Study: N/A
mirror neurons
Definition: frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so. The brain's mirroring of another's action may enable imitation and empathy
Researcher: Giacomo Rizzolatti (2002, 2006)
Study: makes emotions contagious such as yawning when others yawn or smiling when others smile
prosocial behavior
Definition: positive, constructive, helpful behavior
Researcher: Albert Bandura (1961)
Example: encouraging your children to read by reading to them and surrounding them with books and people that read
antisocial effects
Definition: possible response of observational learning
Researcher: Albert Bandura (1961)
Example: watch abusive parents and become abusive when you are a parent OR kids watching tv learn bad habits and get idea that violence is acceptable