Seminar in Health Comm-Final Exam

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Characteristics of Chronic Illness
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Terms in this set (23)
-residual disability
-non-pathological alteration: something that can't just go away b/c of a physical treatment
-requires rehab: mental, physical, emotion, etc
-long period of supervision, observation, or care
-time: acute hospitalization exceeding 30 days or medical supervision for 3 months or longer
1. job strain- psychological job consequences of high job demands
-decision latitude: low decision latitude (low degree of control in job=job strain= CVD) but have more duties
2. depression/anxiety
-those with depression 2-3x more likely to have CVD
-dying from CVD if you have CVD, men=35x & women=14x more likely
3. SES
-health disparities: access/quality of care as a product of different social groups
-access to healthy food, literacy
4. sex differences
-pre-menopause women are less likely to get CVD, after risks go up
5. personality differences
-type A's don't have CVD more often like assumed
-anger out=get anger out
-anger in=hold in, higher likely to get CVD
1. rationing talk
-one way to reduce the risk is reduce talk and reduce talk w/ restraint
I.e. picking battles, if your partner is eating red meat dont say anything but meal plan together
-talking less=you have less risk
-this respects autonomy
-disadvantages: restricting can be stressful, decrease chances for problem-solving, can be seen as a lack of concern
2. saying it nicely
-protecting other person w/ the way you say something
-advantage: intentions have to be inferred (doesn't overtly threaten someone), emphasizes repore
-disadvantages: lack of clarity (having to infer), no clarity heightens having to clarify the risk
3. framing it cooperatively
-look at task of partners health= doing it together
I.e. do you want me to bring it up when I see you eat red meat?
-advantages: partners are symmetrical, sense of accomplishment (if we can figure it out together, sense of pride with partner)
-disadvantage: if this doesn't work the stakes are pretty high, praise can be condescending, if you can't metacommunicate (comm about comm) it can emphasize how things have changed
*generally meta theory is good
1. openness
-how freely do people talk about it
-things they are open to share, usually necessary
-usually easier to talk about treatment options
2. difficulty
-how upsetting/difficult it is to talk about it
-challenging or upsetting topics
-children, life w/o them
3. frequency
-how often/what pattern over time
-talking about topics at different times
-episodic convos
-diagnosis discussed little after its done/happened
4. topical focus
-emphasizing facts vs. feelings
-medical vs. personal
-relational vs. individual
5. disagreement
-conflict about a topic
-major source of conflict due to different feelings
-needs delicate handling
-more around some topics than others
1. integrating old and new identities
-people trying to reconcile who they were before breast cancer diagnosis and after now with symptoms
-felt uncertain
2. managing info
-people may not understand all the information they need/want
-privacy questions that may seem evasive, deemed interference when they are attempting to maintain privacy
-"comm work"
-managing info for others
3. co-owning the disease
-going through this together
-sometimes they feel it is ultimately up to them
-interference of disease owner
4. experiencing a lack of intersubjectivity (shared meaning)
-people may feel isolated or misunderstood
-feeling incredibly alone which leads to distancing
-interferes w/ other goals when desire connection
5. symbolizing sexuality
-representing their sexuality for others (loss of hair, body parts)
-insecurities about empowerment
-self and partner uncertainty
-some side effects: early onset menopause
1. shared acknowledgment of the reality of death
-people are confronting reality that someone has died and trying to understand the meaning
-anticipatory grief, being able to grieve ahead of the person passing away
I.e. grandfather dying at 95, than a student dying at 21
2. shared experience of the loss
-we use rituals to mark the end of life
-vigil, balloons, cremation, bringing food to people houses
3. reorganization of the family system
-death of a family member disrupts patterns
I.e. comm, logistics
4. reinvestment in other relationships and life pursuits
-process of mourning takes a long-time, transitions happen over time
-readjust w/ life events
I.e. weddings, holidays, babies
5 Variables in family risk and resilience1. timing of loss in the family cycle (untimely loss, concurrence of death with other transitions, history of dramatic loss) -grandparents death vs. Childs death 2. sudden or lingering death 3. ambiguous loss -physical and psychological not linking up -having someone who is physically present, but not psychologically present I.e. Alzheimer's, brain trauma -physically absent, fate unknown I.e. Natalee Holloway 4. unacknowledged and stigmatized losses -loss during pregnancy, if you haven't told people you are pregnant -stigmatized: loss due to suicide, AIDS 5. family characteristics -family connectedness, if your family is close then you deal w/ differently than if you weren't close -family resources I.e. burying is expensive3 privacy management processes1. privacy ownership -people think of their private info as something that they own - I can give access or protect it, keep it for myself I.e. the professors car keys 2. privacy control -it can be very risky to share our private info, we control our private info by putting barriers around it -make privacy roles I.e. only share my car w/ people I am in a relationship w/ or those that have a license 3. privacy turbulence -the rules get broken -whoever you tell your info becomes "co-owners" -but you can't control wha the other person does -could be intentional or unintentional3 types of rules/turbulence associated with griefarticle lost a parent/sibling *rules aren't universal 1. selectivity (rule): being strategic about who they share their grief with and when breached privacy expectations (turbulence): when the rule is broken I.e. im going to talk to Molly and say "tell me about when your mom died" when both of her parents are alive, but you only talk to people that have lost a parent, so thats breached 2. avoidance (rule): avoiding the topic, or avoiding certain aspects I.e. circumstances around the death dissimilar privacy orientations (turbulence): when people broke that rule, your perspective on what shouldnt/should be private I.e. Alexia's family members died and Dr. B asking how they died, they approach it different ways and what should/shouldnt be private 3. positivity (rule): the person only wanted to focus on positive things, regulated openness by only talking about happy memories intentional rules violations (turbulence): if someone brings up something negative about the person that died, it violated I.e. yeah your mom died, but she was a bitchWhen is support helpful for the bereaved?1. when it comes from someone who has experienced a similar loss 2. when it isn't filled with cliches 3. when it comes from close friends or family membersAssociations b/w depression and self/partner, relationship, and depression uncertainty and interference1. self/partner uncertainty -uncertanity about me or my partner -helplessness: feeling like hey didn't know how to cope w/ depression, dont know how to support partner -identity: people recognized they were different after being diagnosed 2. relationship uncertainty -about status, viability in the future -physical intimacy: sexual challenges during depression -relationship satisfaction: feeling rejected, detached from partner can make you ? if y'all will make it -future of the relationship: do we think we can get through this disease, can feel ambivalent, more as a unit 3. depression uncertainty -3 uncertainties weren't enough -physical harm -source of depression -understanding: what is it like to to have depression 4. interference -disruptions to daily routines: picking kids up, withdrawing from relationships -disruptions to personal well-being: if a partner is reluctant to treatment -disruptions to the relationship4 types of anxiety1. generalized anxiety disorder -excessive, uncontrollable, or irrational anxiety or worry regarding usual day-to-day events, which persists for at least 6 months and isn't focused on any single subject, object, or situation 2. panic disorder -panic attacks may compromise intense apprehension or terror that comes out of the blue, typically accompanied by fear of losing control, as well as physical signs 3. OCD -characterized by repetitive obsessions that may comprise persistent, distressing, and intrusive thoughts or images, together with compulsions or urges to perform specific acts or rituals 4. phobias (including social anxiety) -persistent, irrational fears of certain situations, activities, people, or things4 reasons people cheat1. relationship dissatisfaction -im not happy w/ my current relationship -cheating is an "easy" way out 2. boredom/need for excitement -desire for variety, adventure -people who cheat for excitement, tend to be serial cheaters 3. sexual incompatibility -feeling like you and your partner aren't a good match sexually, mostly an underlying issue 4. seek revenge -cheating as some from of paybackConflictoccurs when interdependent people percieve incompatible goals and interference from each other in achieving those goals2 dimensions underlying conflictsx= cooperativeness (concern for others) y=assertiveness (concern for self)5 types of conflict management1. dominating= high concern for self, low concern for others (top left of chart) -characterized by force & authority, get your way out of the conflict -appropriate when the relationship isn't as valuable to you -more important for you to reach your goal, than preserve the relationship I.e. a break up, taking a job out of state from your bf 2. avoiding=low concern for self, low concern for others (bottom left of chart) -characterized by withdrawing from the conflict -if the conflict is trivial, if the harms out way the benefits I.e. fighting w/ Taylor, roommate "tiffs'' if someone is to pissed about something you bring it up later 3. accommodating/obliging= high concern for others, low concern for self (bottom right of chart) -characterized by giving into another person -but if the goal is more important to another person than you, it may be okay to accommodate I.e. dr. b giving in at her sisters wedding 4. compromising= moderate concern for others and self (middle of chart) -you aren't getting what you want totally -both parties give up something, both parties get something 5. integrating= high concern for self, high concern for others (top right of chart) -confront the conflict directly, we both get what we want -being supportive, coming up w/ creative solutions -not always available I.e. Paul moving to the U.S., me moving to AlabamaGottmans 4 horsemen of the apocalypseif partners consistently display thee during conflict, they are doomed to fail 1. criticism -attacking a partners personality or character 2. contempt -insulting psychologically, abusing each other (worst of the 4) 3. defensivness -unwillingness to take responsibility 4. stonewalling -nonverbal/verbal withdrawal *video of couple interactingFAAR ModelFamily Adjustment and Adaption Response (FAAR) demands: the stressors in their model capabilities: resources and coping behaviors meanings: how you define or understand the situation -adjustment: demand and resources -adaption: adapt to stabilityDouble ABC-X Modelexplains the families ability to overcome stress overtime A: stressor B: existing resources C: perception of the stressor X: crisis -ABC-X accounts for the way stressors accumulate over time -stress happens over time and can be incomplete to thing of something in isolation -pile up is multiple stressors and the same time