Ch 4 Civil Liberties

civil liberties
Click the card to flip 👆
1 / 29
Terms in this set (29)
symbolic speechnonverbal "speech" in the form of an action such as picketing, flag burning, or wearing an armband to signify protestcommercial speechadvertising statements that describe productslibelfalse written statements about others that harm their repurtationslanderfalse verbal statements about others that harm their reputationobscenityindecent or offensive speech or expressionfighting wordsspeech that is likely to bring about public disorder or chaos; the Supreme Court has held that such speech may be banned in public places to ensure the preservation of public ordertime, place, and manner restrictionsregulations regarding when, where, or how expression may occur; must be content neutralprior restrainta form of censorship by the government whereby it blocks the publication of news stories viewed as libelous or harmfulestablishment clauseFirst Amendment clause that bars the government from passing any law "respecting an establishment of religion"; often interpreted as a separation of church and state but increasingly questionedLemon testa three-part test established by the Supreme Court in the 1971 case Lemon v Kurtzman to determine whether the government aid to parochial (church) schools is constitutional; the test is also applied to other cases involving the establishment clauseintelligent designtheory that the apparent design in the universe and in living things is the product of an intelligent cause rather than of an undirected process such as natural selection; its primary proponents to believe that the designer is God and seek to redefine science to accept supernatural explanationscreationismtheory of the creation of the earth and humankind based on a literal interpretation of the biblical story of Genesisfree exercise clauseFirst Amendment clause prohibiting the government from enacting laws prohibiting an individual's practice of his or her religion; often in contention with the establishment clauseright to privacythe right of an individual to be left alone and to make decisions freely, without the interference of otherscriminal due process rightssafeguards for those accused of crime; these rights constrain government conduct in investigating crimes, trying cases, and punishing offendersexclusionary rulecriminal procedural rule stating that evidence obtained illegally cannot be used in a trialdouble jeapordythe trying of a person again for the same crime that he or she has been cleared of in court; barred by the Fifth AmendmentMiranda rightscriminal procedural rule, established in the 1966 case Miranda v Arizona, requiring police to inform criminal suspects, on their arrest, of their legal rights, such as the right to remain silent and the right to counsel; these warnings must be read to suspects before interrogationrenditiontransfer of suspected terrorists to other nations for imprisonment and interrogation; this practice circumvents U.S. law, which requires due process and prohibits torture