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19 terms

America- Pathways to the Present: Chapter 8 Vocabulary

These are the vocabulary words assigned for chapter 8 of our history textbook, America- Pathways to the Present, at Madeira High School.
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gilded age
• used to describe the post-Reconstruction era
• suggests that a thin but glittering layer of prosperity covered the poverty and corruption of society
spoils system
elected officials appointed friends and supporters to government jobs, regardless of qualifications
James Garfield's assassination
• took place in 1881 in Washington, DC
• shot by a mentally unstable lawyer (Charles Guiteau) who expected a job from Garfield but never received one
Pendleton Service Act
• created a Civil Service Commission to classify government jobs and test applicants
• states that federal employees cannot be required to contribute to campaign funds and cannot be fired for political reasons
William McKinley's assassination
• took place in 1901 at Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo, New York
• shot by a mentally ill man (Leon Czolgosz) who called himself an anarchist
tenements
low-cost apartment buildings designed to hold as many families as the owner could pack in
dumbbell tenements
tenements with a dumbbell shape, allowing each room to have an outside window as required by law
political machine
an unofficial city organization designed to keep a particular party or group in power
graft
the use of one's job to gain profit
George B. Cox
• a political boss elected to Cincinnati city council
• worked with local reformers to improve the quality of the police force and city services
William Marcy Tweed
a notorious boss who used various illegal methods to plunder the New York City treasury
Tammany Hall
the political club that ran New York City's Democratic party
Thomas Nast
a cartoonist who exposed the corruption of Tweed
settlement house
a type of community center offering social services
Jane Addams
opened the former Charles Hull mansion to immigrants
Hull House
a community center used to help immigrants become acclimated to America; also launched investigations of city economic, political, and social conditions
nativism
favoring native-born Americans over immigrants
temperance movement
an organized campaign to eliminate alcohol consumption
Carry Nation
a prohibition activist who won fame by smashing illegal saloons with a hatchet