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• used to describe the post-Reconstruction era
• suggests that a thin but glittering layer of prosperity covered the poverty and corruption of society
elected officials appointed friends and supporters to government jobs, regardless of qualifications
James Garfield's assassination
• took place in 1881 in Washington, DC
• shot by a mentally unstable lawyer (Charles Guiteau) who expected a job from Garfield but never received one
Pendleton Service Act
• created a Civil Service Commission to classify government jobs and test applicants
• states that federal employees cannot be required to contribute to campaign funds and cannot be fired for political reasons
William McKinley's assassination
• took place in 1901 at Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo, New York
• shot by a mentally ill man (Leon Czolgosz) who called himself an anarchist
tenements with a dumbbell shape, allowing each room to have an outside window as required by law
an unofficial city organization designed to keep a particular party or group in power
George B. Cox
• a political boss elected to Cincinnati city council
• worked with local reformers to improve the quality of the police force and city services
William Marcy Tweed
a notorious boss who used various illegal methods to plunder the New York City treasury
a community center used to help immigrants become acclimated to America; also launched investigations of city economic, political, and social conditions
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