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Eukaryotic cell not dividing, DNA is threads


During cell division chromatin condenses to become


(2n) chromosomes in body cells


(n) chromosomes in gametes


an enzyme that removes a phosphate group from ATP and adds it to another protein


Kinases in cell cycle are activated when they combine with a protein


before a cell actively divides, it must grow and duplicate much of its contents, so that two cells can form from one
used to describe all parts of cell cycle except the M stage


nuclear division that produces two daughter nuclei, each with the same number and kinds of chromosomes as the parental nucleus


brings about orderly distribution of chromosomes


short microtubules radiate from centrosome

somatic cells

every cell in your body but your egg cells; 99.9% of cells for women


During meiosis I the homologous chromosomes pair up

independent assortment

means that the homologous chromosomes separate independently or in a random manner

cell cycle

the series of changes a cell undergoes from the time it forms until it divides

cell division

division of a parent cell into daughter cells


structure that helps to form the spindle


last phase of mitosis, chromosome are in two new cells and nuclear membranes start to reform


division of the nucleus or chromosomes


phase of mitosis in which chromosomes line up in the center of the cell


first phase of mitosis in which chromosomes become visible and nuclear membraine disappears


division of the cytoplasm (cytosol and organelles)


phase of mitosis in which sister chromatids are pulled to opposite sides of the cell


uncontrolled cell division

G1 phase

stage of interphase in which cell grows and performs its normal functions

S phase

stage of interphase in which DNA is replicated

G2 phase

stage of interphase in which cell duplicates its cytosol and organelles


type of cell division that creates gametes; cell divides twice to create four cells that are genetically unique


process by which homologous chromosomes exchange pieces, resulting in greater genetic variety

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