Terms in this set (75)

  • Selectively Permeable Membrane
    Some things can get in and out of cells
  • Plasmolyzed
    the cell membrane in a plant collapses but the cell wall stays in place
  • What percent of solute do all cells have in order to survive?
    0.9% solute
  • What are contractile vacuoles
    special organelles in protozoa that remove excess water
  • What is albumin
    its a fluid that matches the inside of our cells, makes them isotonic
  • What makes albumin
    everything
  • What organelle makes albumin that is very important
    the liver, uses it to transfer to the kidneys
  • what is osmotic pressure
    pressure needed to stop the osmotic movement of water across a membrane
  • what is hemolysis
    a red blood cell exploding
  • what does crenate mean
    when a cell shrivels up
  • what does hypertonic mean
    too much solute
  • what does hypotonic mean
    below average, less solute
  • what does isotonic mean
    even out between both solutes
  • If dog blood has 0.9% solute and the water around it has 10% solute which is hypotonic which is hypertonic and which way will water move
    Dog blood is hypotonic, the water is hypertonic and water moves out of the cell
  • are plasma and red blood cells together hypotonic, hypertonic or isotonic
    isotonic
  • What factors affect the direction of diffusion
    concentration, temperature, and pressure
  • what factors affect the rate of diffusion
    the steepness of the gradient, the molecular weight of the solute
  • what is osmosis
    the diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane
  • what is diffusion
    net movement from high to low conventration
  • in transmembrane proteins what are channels
    passive transport of molecules across membranes
  • in transmembrane proteins what are carriers
    transport of molecules against the gradient
  • in transmembrane proteins what are receptors
    transport information into the cell
  • in transmembrane proteins what is cell adhesion proteins
    they connect cells to eachother
  • in transmembrane proteins what are cytoskeleton proteins
    they attach actin
  • what is a ligand
    something that fits a cell recptor
  • is the head of a phospholipid hydrophilic or hydrophobic
    it is hydrophilic or polar
  • is the tail of a phospholipid hydrophilic or hydrophobic
    hydrophobic or nonpolar
  • what can enter a lipid bilayer (charged or uncharged molecules)
    uncharged molecules
  • can nonpolar compounds freely enter a lipid bilayer
    yes
  • do unsaturated phospholipids have kinks in their tails, and are they fluid or not very fluid
    they do have kinks and they are fluid
  • do saturated phospholipids have kinks in their tails, and are they fluid or not very fluid
    they do not have kinks and they are not very fluid- viscous
  • do across from each other phospholipids switch very much
    no
  • do side by side phospholipids switch very much
    yes
  • where is cholesterol in the lipid bilayer
    linked between the fatty acids
  • what model is the lipid bilayer based on
    fluid mosaic model
  • what are channel proteins
    provide corridors that allow a specific molecule or ion to cross the membrane
  • what is endocytosis
    bulk movement into a cell
  • what is phagocytosis
    eating a cell to carry large amounts of organic material into a cell
  • what is pinocytosis
    liquid material brought into a cell
  • what is receptor-mediated endocytosis
    using the receptors in the membrane for specific transport into cell
  • what are clathrin coated pits in cells and what are they for
    indentations on the plasma membrane for endoctytosis
  • what is extocytosis
    release of material from cells surface
  • what are two problems with bulk transports
    takes a lot of energy, not highly selective
  • do ions interact with channel proteins in selectively permeable transport
    no
  • what are the 6 kinds of proteins
    transport, enzymatic activity, signal transduction, cell to cell recognition, intercellular joining, attachment to the cytoskeleton
  • how do things move against gradient and what does it take
    by active transport, takes energy
  • is active transport from high to low or low to high concentration
    low to high
  • what is the sodium potassium pump and what does it do
    active transport of sodium and potassium, uses ATP to move sodium against its gradient
  • what does a cotransport do
    moves amino acids and sugars into the cell through coupled channels
  • what is the electrogenic pump
    transport protein that generates the voltage across the membrane
  • what are two compounds that can diffuse through the membrane and two that cannot
    Can; water and oxygen; nonpolar Cannot; ions, polar compounds
  • name three factors that can increase the fluidity in the membrane
    increase in temperature, unsaturated fatty acids, absence of cholesterol
  • Name three kinds of transmembrane proteins (there are six), and know what each one does
    carriers, channels, receptors, cell adhesion proteins, glycoproteins, cytoskeletal attachment proteins
  • what is the name for the model that describes cell membranes
    fluid mosaic model
  • describe how a channel proteins structure allows things to enter and leave cells
    channels have polar portions that face the extracellular and cytoplasmic sides of the membrane. their nonpolar portions are anchored into the cells membranes hydrophobic tails. beta barrels line the inside and form an empty passageway. filled with fluid
  • what is the name for water diffusion and which direction does it move
    osmosis and from areas of high to low concentration
  • in two solutions its the one with the most solute
    hypertonic
  • if a red blood cell is placed in pure water, which direction will water diffuse and what do we call this
    into the cell because the concentration of solutes are higher inside the cell than outside in the pure water- hemolysis
  • its the pressure of free water molecules colliding with the inside surface of a cell membrane.
    osmotic pressure, or turgor pressure
  • name three ways living organisms maintain an osmotic balance with their enviroment
    -unicellular marine- make themselves isotonic -multicellular animals- bathe cells in isosmotic fluids -fresh water protozoans- contractile vacuoles and active transport -plants- high turgor pressure
  • the three kinds of bulk movement into and out of cells
    pinocytosis phagocytosis receptor-mediated endocytosis exocytosis
  • in greek these terms mean "cell drinking" and "cell eating"
    pinocytosis and phagocytosis
  • its the type of endocytosis that ingests large organisms or fragments of organic matter
    phagocytosis
  • two disadvantages of exo- and endocytosis
    not specific, costs energy
  • in detail, describe the process of receptor- mediated endocytosis
    creathes a clathrin- coated vesicle
  • they are the two types of proteins involved in passive diffusion
    channel and carrier proteins
  • its the term used to describe the passage of only certain molecules into and out of a cell
    selectively permeable
  • its the difference between channel and carrier proteins
    channels are water filled that don't interact with the molecule, carriers actually bind and help transport
  • its the type of passive transport done by carrier proteins
    facilitated diffusion
  • they are three characteristics of facilitated diffusion
    specific, passive, may be saturated
  • its the reason for doing active transport
    to move molecules against the gradient and concentrate them in cells
  • its the concentration of sodium and potassium inside the cell relative to the outside
    sodium- lower inside the cell potassium- is higher inside the cell
  • they are the four types of active transport
    sodium potassium pump, cotransport, countertransport, proton pump, electrogenic pump
  • describe how two separate membrane proteins are involved in the active transport process of molecules
    A Carrier- acts as a pump with the energy of ATP. A Channel- that allows the molecule of interest to travel back into the cell, down the gradient of the first molecule.Also, co- and counter-transport.
  • describe the process of chemiosmosis
    the last thing we acted out in class, what you described to the class to win jeopardy