37 terms

Pharmacology lab last 3 chapters

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Agonist
Term applied to a drug that binds to the receptor and stimulates the receptor's function. Similar to a key fitting a specific lock.
Antagonist
Term applied to a drug that prevents receptor stimulation
Local action
External drug designed to act on the area to which it is administered
Remote action
A drug affecting a part of the body that is distant from the site of administration
Specific action
A drug that has a particular effect on a certain pathogenic organism
Synergistic action
One drug increases or counteracts the action of another
Systemic action
Drug when put in the bloodstream is carried throughout the body
Side effect
Undesired effect of a drug that is not harmful
Absorption
Drug passes into body fluids and tissues
Adverse reaction
Undesirable drug effect that may be harmful
Distribution
Drug is transported from the blood to the intended site of action
Metabolism
Process that involves enzyme-catalyze reactions in the body that build up and break down organic molecules producing or consuming energy
Excretion
Process by where a substance is eliminated from the body
Preventing nausea/stomach irritation with meds
Taking meds with 8oz of water or with food (per pharmacy instructions) can help. Also helps to assure medication reaches the stomach.
Dividing tablets
Should not be divided unless they are scored
Crushing meds
Some can be and then mixed with a small amount of food (applesauce) (check with pharmacy to be sure it is ok)
Medications that shouldn't be crushed
Time released forms of medication, or depressants such as opioids
Nebulizer
Slow deep breath with a short breath hold
Multiple dose inhaler (MDI)
Use with holding chamber, count doses
dry powder inhaler
Prepare med- inhale sharply
natural immunity
acquired as part of normal life experiences (getting sick with a disease)
Artificial immunity
Immunity acquired as a result of deliberate exposure to antigens or by the injection of antibodies.(vaccine)
Community immunity
Herd effect. Protect others by being immunized (infants, immunosuppressed)
immunization
Process of becoming immune to or protected against disease
vaccination
Act of getting an immunization
Vaccine Contraindications
Age, previous adverse reaction, immunocompromised
Live, attenuated vaccines
Contain a version of the living microbe that has been weakened in the lab so I can't cause disease. "Teachers" of the immune system: elicit strong cellular and antibody responses and often confer lifelong immunity with one or two doses
Live, attenuated vaccine examples
Rotovirus, small pox, chicken pox, MMR
Toxoid vaccines
Used when a bacterial toxin is the main cause of illness. Inactivated toxins, when the immune system receives a vaccine containing a harmless toxoid it learns how to fight off the natural toxin
Detoxified toxins
Called toxoids, safe for use in vaccines
Toxoid vaccine examples
Diphtheria and tetanus
Inactivated vaccines
Produced by killing the disease causing microbe with chemicals/heat/radiation. More stable/safer than live vaccines. Usually easily stored=more accessible. Often stimulate a weaker immune response and require additions doses/boosters
inactivated vaccine examples
Hep a, flu shot, polio
Conjugated vaccines
Antigens or toxoids from a microbe that an infants immune system can recognize to the polysaccharides. The linkage helps the immature immune system react to polysaccharide coatings and defend against the disease-causing bacterium
conjugated vaccine examples
Hib, HPV, meningococcal
Freezer temperature for vaccines
-58 to 5 degrees Fahrenheit
vaccine information statement (VIS)
Legally required. Does not give implied consent, patient much verbally agree to the vaccine. If a pt is declining the vaccine a vis should still be given and the situation needs to be documented. Must be given prior to administration. Must record in all pts files that vis was given