geography set 3

El-Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)
-A quasi periodic climate pattern that occurs across the tropical Pacific Ocean about every 5 years.
• 1876479: ENSO Famine killed 13 million in India, China, Brazil, N. Africa
Physiological Distribution in South Asia
• Indus and Ganges plains
• Deltas
• Coastal lowlands
Green Revolution
Agricultural techniques used in developing countries that involve new, genetically modified seeds with high yield outputs, combined with high inputs of fertilizers, irrigation techniques, and pesticides
International Poverty Line
32.7% of Indian population lives below international poverty line (US$1.25/day)
• 406 million
Causes of International Poverty Line
• Transition fro​m closed to open market economies (since 1991)
• Social stratification and the caste system
• Demands associated with high population
Environmental Justice
- A social movement that focuses on fair and equal distributions of
environmental benefits and burdens.
- Body of social scientific research that investigates why poor people and people of color suffer a disproportionate burden with exposure to environmental hazards
UCC's settlement figure, average amount to families of dead
$470 million for Bhopal victims.
- Manufactured Carbaryl (aka Sevin), a pesticide commonly used throughout Asia.
- Carbaryl production requires methyl isocyanate (MIC) as an intermediary.
India's general economic structure from 1947-1991
Current economic activity
-Electrical goods
- Agriculture (Wheat, cotton)
- Textiles
- Chemicals production
Positives of the Green Revolution
- Increased demand -> Creation of agriculture-related industries
-1965: Introduction of high-yield, drought resistant seeds -> expansion of agricultural output
Criticisms of the Green Revolution
- Industrial Ag. expansion -> Greater fertilizer, herbicide, and pesticide inputs.
Traditional knowledge
! Accumulated knowledge, passed down
through successive generations
! Not individually owned, but collectively held
Scientific research that looks for a useful application, process, or product in 'nature.'
Involves processes of discovery and commercialization of new products based in biological resources, typically in less- developed countries.
Often draws on indigenous knowledge about uses and characteristics of plants and animals.
The commercial development of naturally occurring biological materials, such as plant substances or genetic cell lines, by a technologically advanced country or organization without fair compensation to the peoples or nations in whose territory the materials were originally discovered.
traditional knowledge used by others for profit.
The Case of Neem
! Azadirachta indica ! Source of Neem Oil
" Anthelmintic, antifungal, antibacterial, antiviral, antidiabetic, contraceptive and sedative
! 1995: USDA and US pharmaceutical firm (WR Grace) receive patent on extraction technique of neem oil.
! Indians concerned it would be extended to the properties of the tree itself.
! Indian gov't submits a legal challenge
! WR Grace claims traditional Indian knowledge of neem properties had never been published in an academic journal, and thus did not amount to "prior art."
! Public outcry#May 10, 2000, the patent is revoked. Appeal lost in 2005.
Effects of the 2004 Sumatra Earthquake/Tsunami
Dec. 24th 2004:
- Subduction quake (India plate slid under Burma plate)
- 9.1 to 9.3 Magnitude
- 3rd largest earthquake
ever reported.
- Created several tsunamis, some as high as 30m (98ft).
- Total death toll: 230,000 (est. )
Estimate of climate-change related island inundation by mid-2000s
! Rising sea levels"
inundation of islands
! Est. 2,100 islands by mid-2000s.
Primary cause of regional deforestation
- Increased population
- Space, fuel
- Greater agricultural
- Heavy commercial logging due to global market demand
Reasons for high RNI in the Philippines
! Cambodia & Laos: Consistent with low economic and social development trends.
! East Timor: Return of refugees after brutal Indonesian occupation from 1975- 1999
! Philippines: Catholicism and birth control.
Association of Southeast Asian Nations
- Geopolitical and economic organization comprised of 10 SEA countries (all but East Timor)
3 pillars:
- Security
- Social Integration
- Economic Integration
Domino Theory
An anti- communist foreign policy theory that used the idea of the domino effect to suggest that if one country "fell" to communism, others in the neighboring region would also fall.
Khmer Rouge
Pol Pot (1963-1998)
• A left wing extremist government (1975- 1979)
• Regarded as the deadliest regime of the 20th century.
Aspects of Khmer Rouge's social engineering policies
KR implemented social engineering programs to rid Cambodia of foreign influence
• Confiscated all private property
• Outlawed religion
• Closed schools, hospitals, factories (i.e, modern institutions)
• Abolished banking, finance, currency
• Relocation of urban dwellers to cou​ntryside
• Attempt to establish a classless society through urban depopulation
• Turning the Cambodians into "Old People" through agricultural labor
Aspects of Khmer Rouge's family policy
Parents (middle,age,demographic), were, 'compromised,by,capitalism', so,
children were separated from parents.
• Children brainwashed in reeducation camps
•Children considered the "dictatorial instruments of the party"
•Taught torture techniques through the use of animals
•Handed leadership positions in torture and execution of state enemies
Tuol Sleng Detention Centre (S-21)
• Site of systematic tortue,
•Of the 17,000 passed through its gates between 1975 and 1979, only 12 survived.
Estimated death toll under Khmer Rouge
est. between 1.4 and 2.2 million
Applications of palm oil
Commercial Food Industry
! Cooking oil, fast foods, processed foods
! Personal care products
! Soaps
! Makeup
! Biofuels
! Methyl ester and hydrodeoxygenated biodiesel.
! Waste matter used as pellets
Sources of palm oil (countries)
! 85% of palm oil is produced in Indonesia and Malaysia.
! Indonesia: 33.5 million tons (2014)
! 50% of total global export
! Malaysia: 20 million tons (2014)
! 35% of total global export
Replacement of natural forest by non-forestry- related land uses.
Biodiversity Hotspots
Biogeographic region that is a significant reservoir of biodiversity and is threatened with destruction.
Palm Oil and Emissions
Swidden practices used to clear land for palm oil development.
- Large deposits of peat
- Natural carbon sinks up to 65 feet deep
- Stores approximately 9 years of global fossil fuel usage
- Palm oil development releases stored CO2 into atmosphere
- Indonesia 7th-largest emitter of global warming pollution in 2009
- Deforestation accounted for ~ 30% of these emissions.
- 1997: Fires burning peat and vegetation in Indonesia released as much CO2 into the atmosphere as the United States released that whole year.
2015 Southeast Asia Haze Crisis
- An air pollution crisis affecting several countries in Southeast Asia (Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam, Cambodia and the Philippines).
- Caused by forest fires resulting from illegal slash-and-burn practices, principally in Indonesia.
China's "One Child Policy"
Officially restricted married, urban
couples to having only one child.
• Questions re: economic growth and available labor
• Phased out in 2015: Families can now have two children.
China's farm output ranking
#1 in farm output ($1 trillion) • 2 primary agricultural regions:
• North of Yangtze River Valley: wheat, millet, sorghum
• South of Yangtze River Valley: Rice dominated
Reasons for high agricultural import activity in Japan, S. Korea, and Taiwan.
• Rice dominated, limited to coastal
•South Korea
• Rice dominated
China's economic trends for the last 30 years`
4 major environmental issues facing the region.
Soil Erosion (Loess plateau)
Riverine and Coastal Pollution
City of Guiyu
Largest electronic waste site on earth.
Health impacts (150K e waste workers):
Environmental Impacts:
• Bioaccumulation of heavy metals
• Polluted water table.
• River water is undrinkable.
• Agriculture impossible due to pollution.
El Niño-Southern Oscillation
"'The Great Famine
Famine covered 257,000 sq. miles ! Estimated death toll: 8.2 million
"Collapse of agricultural systems... "Malnutrition, starvation, disease.
Treaty of Tientsin
Second Opium War (1856-1858)
"Qing defeated, and forced to sign the Treaty of Tientsin, which opened up new ports of trade, allowed for foreigners to travel into the interior, and legalized the propagation of Christianity.
What were 2 significant impacts of the global agriculture market in 19th century China ("Food Security")?
- Tribute grains partially redirected to the global grain trade.
- Farmers who had previously grown cereal grains turned to cash crops in order to make more money.
Estimated number of deaths attributed to the 1876-78 famine in China
10 million deaths
"Famine" according to Michael Watts
"Famines are social crises that represent the failures of particular economic and political systems."
Percentage of world emissions within the territory of China
Rate of China's oil consumption/day
9.4 million bbl/day
Receive disproportionately small share of global wealth;
! Weak state institutions;
! Often exploited by more powerful (i.e., developed) countries.
Accumulation by Dispossession
A process wherein wealth and power are centralized in the hands of the few
by dispossessing individuals of their wealth or land
Percentage of global carbon emissions that support consumption in countries other than where they were emitted
Percentage of global carbon emissions from fossil fuel combustion that contribute to capital accumulation in countries other than where the emissions occurred
Zero-Sum Game
Economic growth in the core corresponds to+economic decline in the periphery.
- Environmental improvements in the core correspond to environmental degradation in the periphery.
-In time, nobody wins, but some will lose faster than others.