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CP Enviro S2 Final Exam Vocab
Terms in this set (64)
Forms of government support intended to help businesses, like farms, oil/gas, fishing survive.
A person who eats locally and in season.
Farming strategy in which large fields are planted with a single crop, year after year
The total quantity (amount per acre) of crop that the land produces.
Growing several crops on the same plot simultaneously (at the same time)
A set of changes that modernized agriculture and greatly increased food yields in the 1970's. Introduced industrial farming techniques like pesticides, herbicides, and heavy machinery. Not "green" from an environmental sense, but "green" because more crops are made.
Genetically modified organism
An organism that has acquired one or more genes by inserting segments of DNA from another organism in a laboratory setting.
CAFO (Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation)
Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation. Raising a large number of animals bred to gain weight quickly, in crowded buildings.
The most upper layer of sol that purifies water and supplies most of the nutrients needed for plant growth. This layer is often heavily eroded by human activity.
The layer of weathered rock from which the soil is formed.
The gradual transformation of once fertile, farm able land into desert
Salt buildup in soil usually caused by irrigation in dry climates (the irrigation water picks up various salts as it flows over the soil and rocks, and when the water evaporates it leaves behind a film of salt)
Anything species that interferes with human welfare by eating society's food, invading homes, lawns, or gardens, destroying building materials, spreading disease, invading ecosystems, or being a nuisance.
Does not contain any saltwater and can be rivers, lakes, streams,ponds, and wetlands
water that is not directly consumed but is used to produce food and other products
Water used for actual human consumption.
politics of scarcity
Describes the view that depletion of essential resources, such as water, leads to political and military conflicts.
When the land above an aquifer sinks, usually because of overusing the water within that aquifer.
The removal of salt from ocean water
Wastewater from baths, showers, bathrooms, and washing machines. Can be re-routed to flush toilets, wash cars, and water plants that are not eaten.
A phenomenon in which a body of water becomes rich in nutrients (fertilizers). Causes algal blooms, a depletion of oxygen, and fish kills.
A toilet that does not use water. Instead waste is mixed with materials such as sawdust. Bacteria break down the waste. Cheaper and do not require pumps.
Discarded electronic equipment such as computers, cell phones, television sets, etc.
Municipal Solid Waste
Combined solid wastes produces by households, schools, and workplaces that are not industry
Great Pacific Garbage Gyre
Spinning currents of marine solid waste (mostly plastics) located in the north Pacific Ocean
Any discarded material or substance that directly threatens human health or the environment.
Focuses on controlling waste in order to limit its environmental harm but does not attempt to reduce the amount of waste produced.
Producing much less solid waste and reusing, recycling, and composting whenever possible.
A type of biodegradable plastic derived from biological substances such as orange peels, milk, chicken feathers, etc.
A site where hazardous waste has been spilled. Monitored and cleaned up by the government (businesses are supposed to pay but will often go bankrupt first.)
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)
Controls and tracks hazardous waste from cradle to grave.
International treaty; designed to prevent the transfer of hazardous wastes from nation to nation.
Polluted liquid produced by water passing through buried wastes in a landfill
The Earth's most inner layer composed primarily of iron, extremely hot molten rock.
The middle layer of the geosphere which is solid rock
The outermost layer of the geosphere which is both continental and oceanic.
The soft layer of the mantle on which the tectonic plates move
Huge, rigid pieces of the crust/mantle that move across the asthenosphere
The gradual movement of the continents across the earth's surface through geological time.
The series of physical and chemical processes that change one type of rock into another type of rock
Rock that contains enough concentration of a mineral (often a metal) to make it valuable for mining and processing.
The chemical and physical processes that break down rock into sediments (rain, wind, etc)
The rock/soil/vegetation waste material removed from the surface before mining which is put into piles.
Extract (metal) from rock by a process involving heating and melting.
Any source of energy that can be continually produced and is inexhaustible given current conditions. (Examples: Wind, Solar, Geothermal, Etc)
Non Renewable Energy
An energy resource such as coal, gas, or oil that, once consumed, cannot be replaced. Currently being used faster than they can be generated.
Thick, viscous liquid that can be pumped from the ground and purified into a variety of useful fuels
A way to extract natural gas from shale deep below Earth's surface. Injection of high-pressure water/chemicals/sand opens or widens gaps that allow natural gas flow.
A gas with high methane content, found along with various fossil fuels and is used as a fuel. Can be liquefied. Highly versatile.
A solid fossil fuel that forms underground from partially decomposed plant material.
Three Mile Island
Nuclear Power Plant in Harrisburg, Penn. (1979) which failed due to a faulty pressure valve, causing radiation to be admitted in the air. Caused the US to move away from nuclear power.
A city in Ukraine that was the site of a 1986 meltdown at a Soviet nuclear power plant. It has an exclusion zone of over 1000 square miles.
Following a major earthquake, a 15-meter tsunami disabled the power supply and cooling mechanisms of this Japanese facility on March 11, 2011. This caused a nuclear accident in which all three cores had a meltdown.
Fuels produced from plant and animal products. Can include wood, corn oil, algea, food scraps, veggie oil, farm waste, manure, etc.
Energy from steam or hot water produced from hot or molten underground rocks. Water is pumped though underground pipes, and then back to the surface to be used in the home for heat or hot water.
Protective layer in stratosphere that shields earth/humans from UV radiation.
Layer of dense, cool air trapped under a layer of less dense, warm air. Also traps pollutants in the cooler air, and has caused several air pollution tragedies.
Formed when nitric or sulfuric acid combine with water , lowering the pH of rain (damages buildings, kills marine organisms)
A change in the weather conditions of Earth or a particular area over a period of at least three decades.
The trapping of radiated heat by gases in the atmosphere
Climate Change Tipping Point
The estimated thresholds beyond which natural systems could not be reversed.
A method of storing carbon emissions to prevent their release into the atmosphere
Compounds of carbon, chlorine, fluorine once used in refrigerators, air conditioners, aerosol cans, and are responsible for the depletion of ozone
CO2 + H20 -> H2CO3. The formation of carbonic acid because the ocean is absorbing CO2.