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Neurological Disorders

NCLEX-RN
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type of brain scanning that may or may nor require injection of a dye used to detect intracranial bleeding, space-occupying lesions, cerebral edema, infarctions, hydrocephalus, cerebral atrophy, and shifts of brain structures
computed tomography (CT)
noninvasive procedure that identifies tissues, tumors, and vascular abnormalities
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
insertion of a spinal needle through the L3-L4 interspace into the lumbar subarachnoid space to obtain CSF, measure CSF or pressure, or instill air, dye, or medications
lumbar puncture
injection of contrast material usually through the femoral artery into the carotid arteries to visualize the cerebral arteries and assess for lesions
cerebral angiography
what is the highest possible score on the glasgow coma scale?
15
what points do you assess with the glasgow coma scale?
motor (6 points)
verbal (5 points)
eye-opening (4 points)
involuntary flexion of the hip and knee when the neck is passively flexed
brudzinski's sign
what does a positive brudzinski's sign indicate?
meningeal irritation
loss of the ability of a supine pt to strengthen the leg completely when it is fully flexed at the knee and hip (pt complains of pain)
kernig's sign
a chronic, progressive, noncontagious, degenerative disease of the CNS characterized by demyelination of the neutrons
multiple sclerosis
neuromuscular disease characterized by considerable weakness and abnormal fatigue fatigue of the voluntary mms
myasthenia gravis
test performed to diagnose myasthenia gravis and to differentiate between myasthenia crisis and cholinergic crisis
tensilon test
client shows improvement in mm strength after the administration of tensilon
positive for myasthenia gravis
client shows no improvement in mm strength, and strength may even deteriorate after injection of tensilon
negative for myasthenia gravis
degenerative disease caused by the depletion of dopamine, which interferes with the inhibition of the extrapyramidal system which results in bradykinesia, abnormal slowness of movement, and sluggishness of physical and mental responses
parkinson's disease
a sensory disorder of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve which results in severe, recurrent, sharp, facial pain along the trigeminal nerve
trigeminal neuralgia
an acute infectious neuritis of the cranial and peripheral nerves which is usually preceded by mild upper airway infection or gastroenteritis
guillain-barre syndrome
inflammation of the brain parenchyma and often of the meninges
encephalitis
infection that is a potentially serious illness that affects the CNS which is contracted primarily by the bite of an infected mosquito
west nile virus
inflammation of the arachnoid and pia mater of the brain and spinal cord
meningitis
manifestations of MS
urinary retention
numbness/tingling sensation
↓ short-term memory