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type of brain scanning that may or may nor require injection of a dye used to detect intracranial bleeding, space-occupying lesions, cerebral edema, infarctions, hydrocephalus, cerebral atrophy, and shifts of brain structures

computed tomography (CT)

noninvasive procedure that identifies tissues, tumors, and vascular abnormalities

magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

insertion of a spinal needle through the L3-L4 interspace into the lumbar subarachnoid space to obtain CSF, measure CSF or pressure, or instill air, dye, or medications

lumbar puncture

injection of contrast material usually through the femoral artery into the carotid arteries to visualize the cerebral arteries and assess for lesions

cerebral angiography

what is the highest possible score on the glasgow coma scale?


what points do you assess with the glasgow coma scale?

motor (6 points)
verbal (5 points)
eye-opening (4 points)

involuntary flexion of the hip and knee when the neck is passively flexed

brudzinski's sign

what does a positive brudzinski's sign indicate?

meningeal irritation

loss of the ability of a supine pt to strengthen the leg completely when it is fully flexed at the knee and hip (pt complains of pain)

kernig's sign

a chronic, progressive, noncontagious, degenerative disease of the CNS characterized by demyelination of the neutrons

multiple sclerosis

neuromuscular disease characterized by considerable weakness and abnormal fatigue fatigue of the voluntary mms

myasthenia gravis

test performed to diagnose myasthenia gravis and to differentiate between myasthenia crisis and cholinergic crisis

tensilon test

client shows improvement in mm strength after the administration of tensilon

positive for myasthenia gravis

client shows no improvement in mm strength, and strength may even deteriorate after injection of tensilon

negative for myasthenia gravis

degenerative disease caused by the depletion of dopamine, which interferes with the inhibition of the extrapyramidal system which results in bradykinesia, abnormal slowness of movement, and sluggishness of physical and mental responses

parkinson's disease

a sensory disorder of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve which results in severe, recurrent, sharp, facial pain along the trigeminal nerve

trigeminal neuralgia

an acute infectious neuritis of the cranial and peripheral nerves which is usually preceded by mild upper airway infection or gastroenteritis

guillain-barre syndrome

inflammation of the brain parenchyma and often of the meninges


infection that is a potentially serious illness that affects the CNS which is contracted primarily by the bite of an infected mosquito

west nile virus

inflammation of the arachnoid and pia mater of the brain and spinal cord


manifestations of MS

urinary retention
numbness/tingling sensation
↓ short-term memory

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