Terms in this set (87)
What is the mouth?
First part of alimentary canal. Surrounded by lips, cheeks, tongue, palate.
What is the mouths function?
Ingests food. Functions as an organ of speech and sensory reception.
What is the tongue?
Thick muscular organ that occupies the floor of the mouth and nearly fills the oral cavity.
What is the function of the tongue?
Helps in pushing food into the pharynx. Manipulates food for chewing and swallowing.
What is the Palate?
Forms the roof of the oral cavity, consists of hard bony anterior part of a soft muscular part.
What are teeth?
Hardest structures in the body. Breaks food into smaller pieces, which begins mechanical digestion.
Salivary Glands secrete
What are the 3 types of salivary glands?
Parotid Glands, Submandibular Glands, and Sublingual Glands
What is the pharynx?
A cavity posterior to the mouth. Extends from nasal cavity to esophagus.
What is the function of the pharynx?
Does not help in food digestion. Has muscular walls, which function in swallowing.
What is the nasopharynx?
Part of the larynx that Communicates with the nasal cavity and provides a passageway for air during breathing.
What is the oropharynx?
Part of the larynx that is a passageway for food moving downward from the mouth and for air moving to and from the nasal cavity.
What is the laryngopharynx?
Part of the larynx that is a passeway to the esophagus
What is the esophagus?
Muscular food passageway from the pharynx to the stomach. Penetrates the diaphragm through the esophageal hiatus.
What is the stomach?
Inferior to the diaphragm, in the upper left portion of the abdominal cavity. Contains layer of smooth muscle.
What is the function of the stomach
Receives food from esophagus. Mixes food with gastric juices. Initiates protein digestion. Moves food into the small intestine.
What is the Pancreas?
An endocrine and exocrine Gland. Secretes insulin and glycogen to regulate blood sugar. Exocrine function is to secrete digestive fluid called pancreatic juice. The duct of this empties into the duodenum of small intestine.
What is the liver?
The largest internal organ, just beneath the diaphragm in the RUQ. well-supplied with blood vessels.
What is the function of the liver?
Makes bile, processes recently absorbed nutrients, detoxifies certain substances, acts as a filter for pathogens.
What does the gallbladder do?
What is the small intestine?
Tubular organ that extends from the pyloric sphincter to the beginning of the large intestine. Fills much of the abdominal cavity.
What is the function of the small intestine?
It completes the digestion of the nutrients of chyme, absorbs the products of digestion, and transports the remaining material to the large intestine.
What is the large intestine?
Begins in the lower right side of the abdominal cavity where the ileum joins the cecum.
What is the function of the large intestine?
Has little or no digestive function. Secretes mucus. Absorbs water and electrolytes. Forms feces and carries out defecation.
Where are most nutrients absorbed?
What are intestinal villi?
Small, finger-like projections that extend into the lumen of the small intestine.
What is stomach rugae?
Wrinkles in the stomach that allow the stomach to stretch in order to accommodate large meals and help grip and move food during digestion.
Where does mechanical digestion begin?
In the mouth
Where does the chemical digestion of carbohydrates start?
Where does the chemical digestion of fat begin?
Where does the chemical digestion of protein begin?
Why is saliva important?
Helps you chew, taste, and swallow. Fights germs in your mouth.
What is the importance of bile?
It emulsifies fats
Where is the lower esophageal sphincter (cardiac sphincter)?
Between the low-end of esophagus and stomach
Where is the pyloric sphincter?
Between the stomach/duodenum (small intestine)
Where is the sphincter of Oddi?
Between duodenum/ducts of liver and pancreas
Where is the Ileocecal sphincter?
Between the small/large intestine (Ileum and cecum)
Where is the internal sphincter?
In the rectum (involuntary)
Where is the external sphincter?
Anal opening (voluntary)
What are the 4 layers of the wall of the GI tract?
Mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, serosa
What is mucosa
Innermost wall layer. Mucous membrane. Function is protection, secretion, and absorption
What is submucosa?
Wall layer that Nourishes surrounding tissues, transports absorbed materials
What is muscularis external?
Wall layer that is for movement of the tube and its contents
What is serosa?
Outermost wall layer, function is protection and lubrication
What are the major types of teeth?
Incisors, Canines, Molars, and Premolars
What do incisors do?
Bite off large pieces of food
What do canines do?
Grasp and tear food
What do molars do?
Grind food particles
What is enamel?
It's glossy and white, it covers the crown of teeth
What are the major regions of the stomach?
Cardiac, Fundus, Pylorus, body
What are the major regions of the small intestine?
Duodenum, jejunum, and ileum
What are the major regions of the large intestines?
Transverse colon, ascending colon, descending colon, cecum, rectum, anal canal, and anus
Where does pathological acid reflux occur?
What stomach cells secrete Pepsinogen?
What stomach cells secrete hydrochloride acid (HCI)
What stomach cells secrete mucus
What stomach cells secrete intrinsic factor?
What does pepsinogen do?
Inactive form of pepsin
What does HCI do?
Provides the acid environment needed for production and action of pepsin.
What does mucus do?
Provides a viscous, alkaline protective layer on the stomachs inner lining
What does intrinsic factor do?
Aids in vit B12 absorption in small intestine
What is the cephalic phase?
Sight, taste, smell, or thought of food triggers parasympathetic reflexes. Gastric juice is secreted in response.
What is gastric phase?
Food in stomach chemically and mechanically stimulates release of gastric, which, in turn, stimulates secretion of gastric juice. Reflex responses also stimulate gastric juice secretion.
What is intestinal phase?
As food enters the small intestine, it stimulates intestinal cells to release intestinal gastrin, which in turn, briefly promotes the secretion of gastric juice from the stomach wall
What is entergastric reflex?
Slows stomach emptying and intestinal filling
What is gastrocolic reflex?
Stomach signals colon to increase activity
What is gastroenteric reflex?
Increase activity in the small intestine
What are lacteals?
What do lacteals absorb?
Lipids and fats
What does Salivary Amylase digest?
Begins carbohydrate digestion by breaking down starch and glycogen to disaccharides
What does Pepsin digest?
Begins protein digestion
What does gastric lipase digest?
Begins butterfat digestion
What does pancreatic amylase digest?
Breaks down starch and glycogen into disaccharides
What does pancreatic lipase digest?
Breaks down fats into fatty acids and glycerol
What does trypsin digest?
Proteins into peptides
What does sucrase and lactase digest?
Breaks down disaccharides into monosaccharides
What does intestinal lipase digest?
Breaks down fats into fatty acids and glycerol
What is gastin?
Source is gastric cells, in response to food. Increases secretory activity of gastric glands
What is secretin?
Stimulates pancreas to secrete fluid within a high bicarbonate ion concentration
What is cholecystokinin?
Squeeze gall bladder to secrete Bile
What is Hepatitis A
Spreads by contact with food or objects contaminated with virus-containing feces. Short and mild course
Spreads by contact with virus-containing body fluids, such as blood, saliva or semen. may be transmitted by blood transfusions, hypodermic needles, or sexual activity.
Accounts for half of hepatitis cases. Primarily transmitted in blood by sharing razors or needles, from pregnant women to fetus, or through blood transfusions or use of blood products.
What is mechanical digestion?
Breaks down large particles into smaller ones, but does not change the chemical composition
What is chemical digestion?
Breaks down food particles by changing them into simpler chemicals
What is the alimentary canal?
Consists of organs that extend from the mouth to the anus; the food passageway
What is mastication?
mechanical breakdown of food
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