Chapter 22: A Globalized or Fragmented New World? (1991 - Present)

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Terms in this set (...)

Al-Qaeda
The international terrorist organization that claimed responsibility for the 9-11 attacks.
Command economy
No private ownership of property directed by a central government based on democratic centralism.
Compressed modernity
Rapid economic and political change that allows a country to gain stability.
Containment
Keeping communism from spreading that was the foreign policy of the U.S. before and during the Cold War.
Cultural globalization
The spread of western, particularly American, culture to other parts of the globe.
Cultural imperialism
Many people criticize America for spreading their culture so it dominates movie theaters, televisions, and computer screens with images of western goods and styles.
Dependency theory
This analysis puts primary responsibility for global poverty on rich nations. It says that many countries' economic development is blocked by the industrialized countries' exploitation. This theory is an outgrowth of Marxism that emphasized exploitation of one social class by another.
European Union
A regional organization that promises to redefine the meaning of sovereignty. The organization began in an effort to revitalize Europe after World War II. Their initial goals were economic and meetings allowed national leaders to meet.
Fragmentation
The opposite of globalization that was a tendency for people to base their loyalty of ethnicity, language, religion, or cultural identity.
Glasnost
Translates to "openness" in Russia, this reform allowed for more open discussions about political, social, and economic issues as well as open criticism of the government. It was encouraged by western nations, but it caused problems as people who had been repressed for years vented hostility that led to open revolt against the government.
Global elite culture
A cluster of cultural influences that reach far fewer people than global pop culture. One component is the use of English as a common language because of Britain's colonies adopting the language after gaining independence. Its used in trade, business meetings, and sharing modern science.
Global pop culture
This allows many ordinary people to access dress, food, music, movies, and television shows that reflect American culture.
Globalization
An integration of social, environmental, economic, and cultural actives of nations that has resulted from increasing international contacts.
Green Revolution
Collection of new agricultural techniques that involved these two important practices: the use of new higher-yield seeds and the expanded use of fertilizers. It failed to provide famine relief for people in Sub-Saharan Africa.
Household responsibility system
China allowed this system later on to combat economic problems by allowing individuals families to produce agriculture. After paying taxes and supporting the village, the families were allowed to sell or consume their products. This led to more incentive to increase production.
Human rights movement
The formal recognition of individual rights. For example, the black civil rights movement in the United States sought to gain equal political, economic, and social rights for minorities.
Hussein, Saddam
The U.S. government decided to remove this man from power based on the premise that he was harboring Al-Qaeda operatives and constructing Weapons of Mass Destruction to use against the U.S. No weapons were found, so the U.S. was highly criticized for its actions, and its credibility as a superpower was questioned because of its inability to bring stability to Iraq in the post-Hussein era.
Integration
A process that encourages states to pool their sovereignty in order to gain political, economic, and social clout. It binds states together with common policies and shared rules.
Khrushchev, Nikita
After Stalin died in 1953, this man took over as party secretary and premier of the U.S.S.R. In 1956, he gave a famous speech supposedly written by Lenin before he died, in which he was very critical of Stalin. He used it to denounce Stalin's rules and practices and advocated for a peaceful coexistence between the Soviet Union and the U.S. His reforms were not working in 1960s and was replaced by the much more conservative Leonid Brezhnev who ended the reforms and tried to cope with the increasing economic problems.
LDCs and MDCs
Less developed countries and more developed countries. Some countries who are newly industrializing can be categorized in-between as a subcategory.
Market economy
Free market principles without government control.
Marketization
A term that describes the state's creation of a market in which property, labor, goods, and services can all function in a competitive environment to determine their value.
Megacities
Metropolises with populations of more than ten million. This term was created by the United Nations in the 1970s.
Mixed economy
An economy that allows for significant control from the central government.
Modernism
Values of this idea include secularism, reason, materialism, technology, bureaucracy, and freedom rather than collective equality. Basically, industrialization encouraged making money and gaining economic success.
Modernization model
This theory says that Britain was the first to develop its industry because of its prosperity, trade connections, inventions, and natural resources. Max Weber explains that the growing individualism replacing community and kinship resulted in British ingenuity and economic practices. Any country that wants its economy to grow should study the paths taken by the industrial nations, and logically they can reap the benefits of modernization.
NAFTA
The North American Free Trade Agreement that goals were to more closely integrate the countries' economies by eliminating tariffs and reducing restrictions so that companies may expand into all countries freely. For Mexico, its hopes were for overall growth, enriching its business community, and supplying jobs to Mexicans in new industries. American firms gained from access to inexpensive labor, raw materials, and tourism, as well as new markets to sell and invest in.
NGOs
Organization that have joined the U.N. in promoting human rights. Examples are Amnesty International, which concentrates on gaining the freedom of people tortured or imprisoned without trial by their governments and Doctors Without Borders, which provides medical assistance for people caught in crisis situations around the world.
Passive resistance
Peacefully protesting unjust laws. This idea was first used by Gandhi during India's path to independence.
Perestroika
Economic reform initiated by Gorbachev; it was his most radical and least successful reform. He tried to keep the old Soviet model while modernized from within. It transferred economic powers held by the central government to private hands and the market economy. Authorization or some privately owned companies, penalties for under-performing state factories, farm leases outside the collective farms, price reforms, and encouragement of joint ventures with foreign companies characterized this reform.
Preemption
The principle of attacking before being attacked that was used by President Bush to justify the war in Iraq.
Private business
This category of National People's Congress included urban co-ops, service organizations, and rural industries that largely operated as capitalist enterprises.
Privatization
The transfer of state-owned property to private ownership.
Politicization of religion
Incorporating religion into politics that has dominated world politics during the 21st century.
Post-modernism
A set of values that emphasized quality of life over concern with material gain. Some examples include the preservation of environment and the promotion of health care and education.
Putin, Vladimir
The new president of the Russian Federation that set out to redefine Russia's place in the world that required a new interpretation of the country's relationship with the West and its role among the former Soviet States.
Socialist market economy
Gradual infusion of capitalism while still retaining state control that was started by Deng Xiaoping in China to combat economic problems.
SEZs
Special Economic Zones. Four of these were created in China in 1979 that gave foreign investors preferential tax rates and other incentives. More continued to be added to China until more areas foreign investments and free market mechanism have spread to most areas of urban China.
Stateless nations
People of a common identity without a corresponding state organized by a central government.
Supranational organizations
Countries became more affected by these organizations that went far beyond national boundaries.
Tiananmen crisis
China was under a great deal of pressure for human rights after the Chinese army descended on these peaceful protesters advocating for democracy. The government recaptured control, but the fatalities were high and brought a new wave of international protests from human rights advocates.
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
A document sponsored by the United Nations and signed by the U.N. General Assembly in 1948. It says that everyone it entitled to all rights and freedoms without distinction of any kind, such as race, color, sex, language, religions, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth, or other status. No distinctions were also allowed based on political, jurisdictional, or international status of the country or territory to which a person belongs, whether it be independent, trust, self-governing, or any other limitation of sovereignty.
WMDs
Weapons of Mass Destruction that were supposedly being created in Iraq to be used against the U.S.
World Bank
This organization was originally created to help countries rebuild after World War II, but its focus today is on giving loans to low and middle income countries with modest interest loans. They also support health initiatives such as vaccination programs or disease and research to combat AIDS and efforts to reduce greenhouse gases that contribute to global climate change.
WTO
The World Trade Organization that is an organization of member states that have agreed to rules of world trade among nations. Russia was a major exception, as they did not join the organization. Membership initiations were different for all countries, and they were very strict about letting nations join. For example, China was denied status for years because of questioning human rights abuses.
Yeltsin, Boris
The protesters against the return to conservatism in Russia was led by this man, who had earlier been removed from the Politburo a few years earlier because of his radical views. When the U.S.S.R. split up into fifteen different, separate republics, he emerged as the president of the largest and most powerful republic, renamed the Russian Federation.
Gorbachev, Mikhail
This Soviet leader was unlike any other because he looked and acted more "western" and was more open to western-style reforms, even more so than Khrushchev. He created glasnost, which led to more open discussion about the political, social, and economic issues, although hostility and open revolt resulted from the years of repression; democratization, with the creation of the Congress of People's Deputies and a President elected by the Congress; and perestroika that was an economic reform that was his least successful and most radical reform.