Chapter 21 Ethel Wood Vocabulary
Terms in this set (67)
African National Congress
Black political organization within South Africa; sought democracy for black majority rule; declared illegal in SA until the 1990s
All-African People's Conference
Meetings where Africans from around the world could meet between the end of WWI and WWII; led by famous men like W.E.B DuBois and Blaise Diagne; little progress towards independence until 5th conference in Manchester, England in 1945
President of Chile; nationalized industries/banks; overthrown in 1973 by revolt of Chilean military w/support of USA
Policy of strict racial segregation imposed in SA to permit the continued dominance of whites politically and economically
Dictator of Cuba from 1934-1944; returned to presidency in 1952; ousted from gov't by revolution led by Fidel Castro
President of Mexico from 1934-1940; responsible for redistribution land, primarily for ejidos (communal land farms); began program for primary and rural education.
Cuban revolutionary; overthrew Batista in 1958; initiated series of socialist reforms; came to depend almost exclusively on the USSR.
Military officer that succeeded Sun Yat-sen as leader of the Guomindang (Nationalist Party in China) in the mid- 1920s; became the most powerful leader in China in the early 1930s, but his nationalist forces were defeated and driven from China after WWII.
Chinese Cultural Revolution
Profound reform that instituted political, social, and economic change in China; main goal was to purify the party and country through radical transformation; started by Mao Zedong.
British prime minister during WWII; known for his "Iron Curtain" speech about the Soviets.
Peacefully breaking unjust laws; Gandhi is known for this.
Preventing the spread of communism beyond the areas that it has already spread.
The authoritarian state's allowance of input from major groups outside the gov't, like big businesses and labor organizations.
Cuban Missile Crisis
The USSR had armed missiles in Cuba due to the US having armed missiles in Turkey; caused tension for a few days, as it looked like war might finally break out; Khrushchev withdrew the missiles at the last minute, and the US then removed missiles from Turkey, thereby avoiding crisis.
Former colonies becoming independent countries.
Charles De Gaulle
Leader of French resistance during WWII; ushered in new Gov't in France.
From Senegal; led meetings of the All-African People's Conference
American that led meetings of the All-African People's conference; author and scholar.
General Assembly (of UN)
Representatives from all member states.
Mohandas K. Gandhi
Led civil disobedience movement against British power in India; also called "Mahatma" or "Great Soul".
Great Leap Forward
1958-1966; started by Mao Zedong in China partly to free China from Soviet domination; Utopian effort to change China into a radical egalitarian society, w/ primary emphasis on economics.
Argentine revolutionary; aided Fidel Castro in overthrow of Batista; died while redirecting guerrilla movement in Bolivia in 1967.
Ho Chi Minh
AKA Nguyen Ai Quoc; led Vietnamese Communist party in struggle for liberation from US and French dominance and to unify north and south Vietnam.
Political scientist that linked decolonization to his "three waves" of democratization.
Import Substitution Industrialization
Typical of Latin American colonies; domestic production of goods during the 20th century that had previously been imported; led to light industrialization.
Iranian Cultural Revolution
Had goals very similar to those of Mao Zedong in China; purification was the heart of the revolution(s); suppressed all opposition.
Phrase coined by Churchill to describe the division between free and communist societies taking shape in Europe after 1946.
Emphasized literal interpretation of Islamic texts, social conservatism, and political traditionalism; articulated resentment towards the elite and the US.
Muhammad Ali Jinnah
Muslim nationalist in India; originally member of the National congress party; became leader of Muslim league; traded Muslim support for British during WWII for promises of a separate Islamic state after the war; first president of Pakistan.
Mustafa (Ataturk) Kemal
Unified Turkey as an independent country in 1923; led the organization of a secular nationalist state; abolished Shari'a law, the practice of Polygamy, and the office of caliph in the gov't.
Leader of nonviolent nationalist party in Kenya; organized the Kenya Africa Union (KAU); failed to win concessions because of resistance from white settlers; came to power only after suppression of the Land Freedom Army (Mau Mau)
Religious ruler of Iran following revolution of 1979 to expel the Pahlavi shah of Iran; emphasized religious purification; tried to eliminate western influence and create purely Islamic gov't.
Stalin's successor as head of the USSR; attacked Stalinism in 1956 for concentration of power and arbitrary dictatorship; failure of Siberian development program and antagonism of Stalinists led to downfall.
1950-1953; North supported by USSR and later Communist China, and South supported by US and small UN international forces; ended in stalemate and continued division of Korea.
League of Arab States
Regional organization designed to strengthen and unite countries w/ Arab majorities.
War where the weapons used to fight, the nations involved, or objectives pursued are restricted in some way.
Leader of the African National Congress that was imprisoned for aggressive actions towards white minority rule in SA; released from prison in 1990, where he was elected president of ANC the following year; received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1993 and was declared SA's first Black president May 10th, 1994.
Communist leader in revolutionary China; advocated rural reform and role of peasantry in the Nationalist revolution; led communist reaction against Guomindang purges in the 1920s, culminating in 1934 w/ the Long March ; seized all of mainland China by 1949; initiated Great Leap Forward (1958)
Program initiated by the US to give loans to Europe in order to rebuild after WWII; vehicle for American economic dominance.
Gamel Abdel Nasser
Took power in Egypt following military Coup in 1952; enacted land reforms and used state resources to reduce unemployment; ousted Britain from Suez Canal zone in 1956.
created in 1949 under US leadership to group most of the Western European powers (+Canada) in defense against possible Soviet aggression.
Disciple of Gandhi; governed India after independence in 1947; committed to program of social reform and economic development; preserved civil rights/democracy.
Leader of Ghana after the European dominance began to crumble.
Begun in 1925 in Iran by Colonel Reza Khan after he carried out a successful coup d' etat against the weakened political state in 1921; named after an ancient language from Iran's glorious past.
Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO)
Formed to represent the stateless people not absorbed into neighboring Arab states, but were put into refugee camps, thus threatening the stability of the entire region.
Party of the Institutionalized Revolution (PRI)
The unification of Mexican regional Caudillos in order to keep stable in 1929.
Military leader in Argentina who became dominant political figure after military coup in 1943; used position as Minister of Labor to appeal to working groups/the poor; became pres. in 1946; forced into exile in 1955, but returned and won presidency again in 1973.
Wife of Juan Peron.
Meeting among US, British, and Soviet leaders just before the end of WWII in 1945; essentially split up Europe before the war even ended.
Worked with the United states to successfully overthrow the socialist gov't of Salvador Allende in 1973 via a military coup.
Franklin D. Roosevelt,
President of the US during WWII until his death just before the end of the war
Security Council (of UN)
Smaller than General Assembly; dominated by major Allied powers; made of 5 permanent members (Britain, China, France, the USSR, and the US) and 7 rotating members.
"Race" between the US and the USSR to see who could get into space the fastest and land on the moon; ends in US "victory" in 1969 when they successfully landed a man on the moon.
USSR satellite placed in space in 1957.
Leader of the USSR during WWII and first part of the Cold War; known for Five-Year Plans.
Meeting among US, British, and USSR leaders in 1943; agreed to open new front in France.
AKA developing nations; nations outside of the capitalist industrial nations of the 1st world and the industrialized communist nations of the 2nd world; generally less economically powerful; sought by 1st and 2nd world powers for support.
"Three Waves" of Democratization
Theory made by Samuel Huntington to explain why states became democratic.
Asserted the US as a world Super Power in 1947; made US policy of supporting free peoples who are resisting subjugation by armed minorities/outside pressures.
US pres. from 1945-1952; less eager to have smooth interactions w/ USSR than Roosevelt; authorized use of atomic bomb against Japan; architect of US diplomacy that initiated the Cold War.
The division between communist China under Mao Zedong and Chaing Kai-shek's headquarters in Taiwan, which he believed to be the true gov't.
United Fruit Company
Most important foreign economic concern in Guatemala during the 20th century; attempted land reform aimed at United Fruit caused US intervention in Guatemalan politics leading to ouster of reform gov't in 1954.
United Nations Charter
The document that signified the creation of the UN and the rules behind it.
Elected pres. of Brazil in 1929; based state on Mussolini's Italy, and established an authoritarian regime supported by military force.
Began as nationalist rebellion against the French in 1954; turned into fight against communist North and not communist South; north supported by USSR, while south supported primarily by the US; war eventually ends in US withdrawl and the forceful unification of Vietnam
Meeting among Allied leaders in 1945; agreed to Soviet entry into the Pacific war in return for possessions of Manchuria; organization of the UN; disputed division of political organization in the Eastern European states after the war.
Jewish movement that supported land claims in order to form a Jewish homeland; supported by the Balfour Declaration.