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HIST 1312: France
Terms in this set (61)
the Sun King, (1643-1715)
- sacred, paternal, absolute, reason
- architecture as symbol of power (Versailles)
- created Versailles so he couldn't be overthrown
"Létat, c'est moi"
"I am the State"
- Louis XIV and later Napoleon Bonaparte
Divine Right of Kings
states that God appointed the king
- means that no one can question him or challenge his authority
The Estates-General is composed of:
1st Estate - Clergy
2nd Estate - Kings, Queens, and Nobles (Bourgeoisie and Aristocracy)
3rd Estate - Everyone else (bankers, lawyers, doctors, etc.)
members of the Society of Jesus, a Roman Catholic order of priests
- founded in 1534
- purpose: missionary work
- opposed reformation
French protestants of 1500s and 1600s
- largely Calvinist, suffered suffered persecution under Catholic majority
- many emigrated from France due to this
Edict of Nantes
signed: April 1598 by French King Henry IV
- gave Calvinist protestants in France substantial rights in nation
- aimed to promote civil unity
What country is the traditional enemy of France?
The ability to use reason could lead to a _____________.
perfect society and happiness
Baron de Montesquieu
injustice of the ancien regime
- admires parlaiment
the Social Contract
- "believe in science"
- if the king doesn't treat you well, you have the right to overthrow him
- reason and science
experienced the English Civil War
hospitals, orphanages, the arts, weakened nobility and churches
- divine right of kings
- hereditary aristocracies
- state churches
their base of power = ppl
How did France's population change between the early 1700s and the Revolution in 1789?
increased by 6 million
(from 20 - 26 million)
leased farms and/or tools
- taxes and feudal dues (milling fees)
titles as rewards
- merchants, craft-workers, doctors, teachers, lawyers
educated and political
took the throne at age 20
- shy and ineffective
- queen, married at 14 to Louis XVI of France
Which country was the most powerful at the time of Marie Antoinette?
T/F There are little differences in wealth in France at the time of the Revolution.
F - there were vast differences in wealth (look at the three different estates)
Assembly of Notables
like America's Congress
- aristocracy and clergy vote together (2/3 of vote)
- leaves peasants with only 1/3 of vote (even those they were 98% of the pop.)
- peasants want more votes
What leads to the Tennis Court Oath?
during the Assembly of Notables, Louis XVI locks the 3rd estate members out of the building
- so they move to the tennis court and create a new oath
- Louis XVI relents
Storming of the Bastille
direct assault on gov't
What happened with the fish wives at Versailles?
they marched into the palace, trashed it, killed ppl, captured the royals (Marie Antoinette, Louis XVI, and their children), and took them to Paris (where they couldn't hide in a palace and make decisions away from the ppl)
- begins Rev.
- following this event, documents = destroyed and massacres = frequent
When Louix XVI attempted a disguised escape from France into Austria, what did he plan to do?
he was going to bring in foreign troops to quench the rebellion that he couldn't suppress himself
Anarchy? Revised Laws
- Louis XVI remains king of France
- inherited titles = abolished
- trial by jury
- church = nationalized
During Louis's imprisonment, where does he escape to?
Varennes (to Luxembourg with 8,000 Austrian troops)
What happens at the Tuileries?
700 soldiers = killed
- crowds attack prisons and kill royalists
- monarchy = abolished
- Louis XVI = executed
- "I die innocent"
- French National Anthem
Gov't after Louis XVI's execution:
- argued with "sans-culottes"
- universal male suffrage
- decrease in food prices
- limit land ownership
(Rev. women = active in revolution but gained little)
- sans-culottes = too radical
- didn't like nationalization of church or thought of king
- thousands = killed
Exporting the Revolution
euro gov'ts = horrified
- Austrians = outraged
- France conquers Netherlands
moderates, compared to Jacobins
radicals who win control, led by Robespierre
- they kill everyone and anyone that shows allegiance to the king (not just nobles)
- murder of Marat (painting)
The Reign of Terror was led by:
~ 24,000 died
A New France (1974)
slavery = abolished
- christian names (like Safran and Myrthe)
- calendar: changed months to just 3-wks long (named after flowers)
Counsel of Public Safety
royalist rebels in provinces
- Jacobins attacked in Paris
- 1795: royalist coup
gov't politicians = forced out by soldiers
- Napoleon = commander of Paris
- assembly dissolved
The Economy (post-Rev.)
cost of living increases by 400%
- overseas trade decreases by 7%
- unemployment increases
- literacy decreases
The Church (post-Rev.)
property is taken away by state :(
- tithes = state paid :(
- officials = appointed by state :(
- $ charity :(
great general, ppl still study his tactics
- took complete control of day-to-day politics
- at war with nearly all of Europe (citizen army)
- Corsican, poor nobility
- conquers Egypt, Battle of the Nile (against England)
- becomes tyrant
- invades Syria
- shuts down newspapers that don't support him
- 1802 Concordat with Pope
1802 Concordat with Pope
agreement reached, Napoleon sees himself as appointed by God
- Napoleonic Code
- state run elections
- national bank
- women :(
- titles :)
- redoes everything that had been undone during revolution
What else does Napoleon do?
- marries siblings to various European monarchs
- marries up in social class to legitimize himself
- controlled most of Europe by 1810
- 1805 Battle of Trafalgar
- Guerrilla tactics in Spain
- 1812: Russia
1805 Battle of Trafalgar
the Franco-Spanish fleet lost twenty-two ships, without a single British vessel being lost. It was the most decisive naval battle of the Napoleonic war. Horatio Nelson
Explain Napoleon's defeat in Russia
the Russians refused to fight Napoleon; they simply retreated further and further into their country, pulling Napoleon and his unprepared army in after them.
- only 3 wks of food (starvation and thirst)
- General Winter (freeze)
- 570,000 men, 200,000 horses, 1,100 canons
In 1814, Paris is captured and Napoleon is exiled to which island?
Who reigned in France while Napoleon was at Elba?
Louis XVIII (Louis XVII was Marie Antoinette's son who died in the castle)
- this man was a distant relative, brought in to rule while Napoleon was absent
- flees upon N's return
"I am the State" was claimed by both:
Louis XIV and Napoleon
For how long was Napoleon on Elba?
What does Napoleon do upon his return from Elba?
marches to Paris
- (Louis XVIII escapes/flees)
- 2 months later, Waterloo
- final exile on St. Helena
Napoleon = defeated by Brits and Prussians, 1815
Who built Versailles?
salt, wine, and tobacco tax
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