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Personality Puzzle - Chapter 13
Funder's Personality Puzzle
Terms in this set (63)
acknowledging and addressing the ways in which the field of psychology is unique. Disagreed with the idea that the study of the mind is just another science, or it could resemble physics or chemistry in any way. They argued the mind is not the same as molecules or atoms; it is different because the mind is aware. Seeks to understand awareness, free will, happiness, meaning of life.
Humanistic - Eight elements of humanistic psychology
Study of humans, not animals
Holistic - Eight elements of humanistic psychology
Human system is greater than sum of its parts
Historic - Eight elements of humanistic psychology
Whole person from birth to death
Phenomenological - Eight elements of humanistic psychology
Focus on interior, experimental, and existential aspect of personality
Real life - Eight elements of humanistic psychology
Person in nature, society, and culture - not the experimental lab
Positivity - Eight elements of humanistic psychology
Joy, fruitful activities, virtuous actions and attributes
Will - Eight elements of humanistic psychology
Choices, decisions, voluntary actions
Value - Eight elements of humanistic psychology
A philosophy of life that describes what is desirable.
central insight of humanistic psychology is that one's conscious experience of the world is psychologically more important than the world itself.
Proponents of the phenomenlolgical approach
assume that immediate, conscious experience is all that matters. Everything in the past or future can influence us by affecting our thoughts and feelings at the moment. The only place and time in which we exist in our consciousness is right here and now. The realization that only our present experience matters is the basis of free will.
our particular experience of the world. They are different from anybody else's and form the basis of how we live our lives, including goals we want to pursue and the obstacles and opportunities we perceive. It is by choosing our construal of the world that we decide how to interpret our experience; we achieve free will.
trying to observe our own perceptions and thought processes. Wilhelm Wundt founded the first psychological labs where he tried to get his research assistants to participate in introspection.
broad philosophical movement that began in Europe in the mid-1800s. Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, Heidegger, Binswanger, Boss, and Sartre were proponents.
Arose as a reaction against European rationalism, science, and industrial revolution. Thought that rationality had gone too far in accounting for everything. Thought that science, technology, and rational philosophy had lost touch with human experience. The purpose of existential philosophy was to regain contact with basic experiences of being alive and aware.
begins with concrete and specific experience of human being existing at a particular moment in time and space. Key questions are what is the nature of existence, how does it feel, and what does it mean?
Three parts of experience
umwelt, mitwelt, eigenwelt = three components of being alive
consists of the sensations you feel by virtue of being a biological organism. Includes pleasure, pain, heat, cold, and all the bodily sensations. Ex: poke your finger with a pin...the experience is umwelt.
consists of what we think and feel as a social being. Emotions and thoughts about other people and the emotions and thoughts directed at us make up mitwelt. Ex: think about someone we love, fear or admire.
the inner, psychological experience. This is the experience of experience itself. Consists of how we feel and think when we try to understand ourselves, our own mind, and our own existence. This includes introspection. Ex: try to watch our own mind having the experience of a pinprick or the experience of love or thinking about these words. When we observe our own minds and feelings in this way, the experience is Eigenwelt.
time, place, and circumstances in which we are born (thrown into slavery, 21st century, etc).
failure to answer questions why we are here and what we should be doing with life. unpleasant feelings caused by contemplating these concerns. Also called existential anxiety.
what we feel because of choices. We may decide to help someone, but that decision could make someone else suffer.
we must live with our choices, and our choices are ours alone.
awareness when we realize that our outcomes are beyond our control, including some important elements of our life. Ex: can't change our fate or the fates of our loved ones.
existential responsibility, which requires existential courage. We must face these problems directly - including our own mortality and the meaninglessness of life to seek purpose.
living in bad faith
avoiding the problem of worrying about the meaning of life by getting a good job, buying a car, listening to society.
Problems of living in bad faith
1. selling our sols for comfort. Might as well be a rock (or the dirt that we are)
2. even if we ignore our problems for material comforts, we won't be happy.
3. it is impossible not to worry about the meaning of life. Even if we choose not to worry, we are still choosing. There's no exit from the existential dilemma.
coming to terms with existence; alternative to bad faith. Facing facts that we are mortal, life is short, and we are masters of our own destiny. Entails being honest, insightful, and morally correct.
triumphed over the apparent meaninglessness of life by developing the existential strength to face what must be faced.
non self. Buddhist. The idea that the independent self you sense inside your mind is an illusion. What feels like yourself is only a temporary composite of many things, including physiology, environment, and society, all of which are constantly changing. There is no unchanging soul at the center of this. The illusion of having an independent self is harmful and leads to isolation.
nothing lasts forever and it is best to accept this fact instead of fighting it. The current moment isn't important, but all moments in the past and future have equal status. The well-being of others matters just as much as your own because boundaries between us and them are illusory.
Rogers and Maslow's optimistic humanism
people are basically good and they seek to relate closely to one another, and they have an innate need to improve themselves.
people have a need to actualize - to maintain and enhance life. Goal of existence is to satisfy this need. Differs from traditional existentialists who believed that existence had no intrinsic goal.
people can only be understood by this perspective, which the entire panorama of conscious experience.
Maslow's hierarchy of needs
need or motive to self-actualize, but motive becomes active if the more basic needs are met. Ex: someone starving to death won't be concerned with higher aspects of existence. Explains how people from different cultures have different bases of happiness.
fully functioning person
Rogers & Maslow believed the best way to live is to become more clearly aware of reality and oneself. If you can perceive the world accurately without distortion, you can take responsibility for your action and live what existentialists would call an authentic existence, but only happy.
unconditional positive regard
experienced by the important people in your life, especially during childhood, which allows us to become fully functioning people.
conditions of worth
if you feel that other people value you only if you are smart, successful, attractive, you develop this according to Rogers. Limits your freedom to act and think. If you believe you are valuable only if certain things about you are true, you will distort your perception of reality to believe them. People who experienced unconditional positive regard from parents does not develop conditions of worth.
help clients become fully functioning people. Help them perceive their own thoughts without the therapist seeking to change them, and make the client feel appreciated no matter what he thinks, says, or does. Removes conditions of worth.
Kelly's personal constructs
emphasize how one's cognitive thinking assembles one's various construals of the world into individually held theories. Personal constructs help determine how new experiences.
scales ranging between one concept and its opposite (good - bad). Each person's cognitive system is made of a unique set of constructs.
Role construct repertory test
Rep test asks you to identify three people who have been important in your life, then describe how they are similar and different. Kelly believed the way we discriminate among these objects, people, and ideas, reveal the constructs through which we view the world.
chronically accessible constructs
more readily brought to the mind in certain individuals. Kelly believed constructs came from past experience (perceptions of )
principle of parsimony (occam's razor)
the idea that all other things being equal, the simplest theory is the best. These canons do not ensure the right choice. To choose which theory to believe, the scientist makes a judgment call from among those that fit the data.
Ex: a job interview can be viewed several different ways: opportunity to show off talents, a normal conversation, exhausting ordeal, humiliating career destruction. Your performance at the interview will determine it.
corollary of personal construct. Holds that understanding another person means understanding her personal construct system and able to look at the world through his or her eyes.
depending on one's personal constructs, any pattern of experience can lead to numerous construals. The construals we choose aren't forced on us since others are equally possible. This means that our personal reality doesn't simply exist apart from us. Our construct is in the mind and we can always choose to reconstruct reality differently.
frameworks for construing the meaning of data. The basic approaches to personality (psychoanalytic, trait, etc) are paradigms. The choice among them is not a matter of which is right and wrong; the paradigm addresses the topic that interest the researcher.
the cost of something is the amount of resources required to get it. In business it is the difference between what it brings you and what you could have gained by spending your resources on something else. These definitions derive from different construals of the goal of economic life.
the goal as doing what you want as long as you can pay for it
you must maximize your gain, and unless you make as much money as possible, you have failed.
Csikszentmihalyi's optimal experience
moment-to-moment experience is what really matters in life. Concerned with how to make the most of it.
best way a person can spend time on activities that he or she enjoys the most. The subjective experience of the activity (enjoyment itself) is the flow (joy, happiness, well-being). Flow arises when the challenges an activity presents are well matched with our skills.
without stress, life would be boring and meaningless. the most severe kind of existential pathology is vegetativeness, in which a person feels that nothing has meaning and becomes listless and aimless.
experience is dominated by anger, disgust and cynicism. Constantly seeks out the negative.
a lifestyle that embraces rather than avoids potential sources of stress. Properly approached, stressful and challenging experiences can bring learning, growth, and wisdom. Hardy people are healthier and better adjusted psychologically.
Deci and Ryan's self-determination theory
hedonia and eudaimonia
route to maximize pleasure and minimize pain
more complex, entails seeking a deeper meaning to life by pursuing important goals, building relationships, and being aware of taking responsibility for one's choices in life.
three central intrinsic goals to self-determiniation theory
autonomy, competence, relatedness. can't be a fully functioning person without all three. People who follow intrinsic goals over extrinsic (money), are better off.
self-determination theory is a big part. Focuses on positive subjective experience, individual traits, and positive institutions in order ot improve quality of life and prevent the pathologies that arise when life is barren and meaningless. It is the rebirth of humanistic psychology. Investigates the traits, processes, and social institutions that promote a happy and meaningful life. Focuses on human strengths instead of faults.
Six key virtues
courage, justice, humanity (compassion), temperance, wisdom and transcendence (chart p. 465)
implications of phenomenology
moment-to-moment experience of every person. Mystery of experience - conscious experience is a fact and mystery. It can't be explained by science or described well with words.
Understanding others - at the heart of humanistic psychology is to understand others by understanding their construals. "Don't judge me until you've walked a mile in my shoes. It is misguided, however, to judge the values and practices of others from the perspective of our own culture.
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