Ethics of Convergent Media
Terms in this set (86)
What were Plato's four virtues?
wisdom- not knowledge. higher degree of knowledge officials hold
courage- ability and understanding to know what should should be feared in society
temperance- living a life in moderation
justice- keeping above 3 in line and knowing what makes a just society
What is the difference between ethics and morals?
ethics- is the study of facts, outcomes, and consequences of what makes a society better
morals- personal religious based beliefs of what is right and wrong
Aristotle; Every decision is different for everyone, the ethical decision (mean) lies within 2 extremes
Kant; Act only in accordance with an action you would make universal law; basic strict duties-don't lie, cheat, kill..
censored and widespread publication. Established the Church of England.
Self Correcting Theory and Marketplace of Ideas
Milton; Allow ideas to compete, even ideas we hate, so people are not deprived of the opportunity to learn and in the end, truth will emerge as the ultimate winner, even though false ideas may be set out, eventually truth will win and be recognized by the public, people have a right to information and their own opinion of their government.
confront evil directly, executed when caught plotting to kill Hitler
Former Spokane Mayor James West
gay major; forensic computer expert used deception when chatting with him online, mayor agrees to help the teenage boy with a job for sex; then forensic computer expert created a story out of it
Socrates and Crito
Crito worried of what the public will say about it; Socrates says not important what people will think, he's a product of Athens (Athens has provided him with protection, laws,etc.) only live a life that is just and reasonable is worth living
categorical imperative- do only what you would consider universal law; strict rules: do not lie, cheat, kill EVER
Mill; Greater good for the greatest amount of people
John Stuart Mill
justification of deception: It does more good than harm. Rationally chosen. you have to be able to acknowledge and explain the actions of deception.
Emphasis on fairness; veil of ignorance to protect everyone
Potter Box Model; 1. understanding the facts of the case 2. Outlining the values 3. Application of the philosophical principles 4. Articulation of loyalties
Pope Alexander VI
instituted censorship of all printing not sanctioned by the church. attempt to keep a firm lid on printing for more than 100 years
John Peter Zenger
opposed New York and New Jersey governor William Cosby in NYT publication and charged with seditious libel in 1734
fought for Zenger using truth as a defense
responsible for the Bill of Rights and primary author of first amendment
watchdog of the government, movement for change from libertarian theory to social responsibility; criticism for fathering a child with a slave
Hutchins Commission: laid ground for movement to social responsibility theory of the press
laid ground for movement to social responsibility theory of the press.
1) Provide full, fair account for events.
2) Generally support good things for people (honest government, healthcare).
3) Provide access to social and ethnic groups
4) Provide ground for exchange of ideas
5) Provide access to all intelligence- print what you know
father of Time-Life magazine, financed Hutchins Commision
name released as "person of interest" for anthrax threats, sued government for almost 6 million USD
credited as hero for helping many people safely evacuate a planted bomb during the Olympics; later falsely accused of planting the bomb because of his "loser" status wanted attention
actual Olympic Park bomber
writer for USA Today that traveled the world and wrote from isolated areas where facts were hard to document. turned out that most of his stories didn't happen, he fabricated and lifted quotes.
writer for the NEW YORK TIMES and lifted quotes, stole stories from other authors and caused an all time low for the paper, two editors of the paper resigned
writer for THE NEW REPUBLIC was known for his great stories but were later found to be completely made up. He made sure to be able to get around fact checkers because he was one himself. He made up phone numbers, fax, emails, notes, etc.
Used deception, snuck into insane asylums (Blackwell's Island) to see how they were treated and then later had herself arrested to fight for women's rights
AOL, the young one
Time Warner, the old one
felt that advertising was no longer effective, so he made it extremely controversial ads with brash pictures
Worked with Benetoon on ads. Retired after "death row" ads
WWII War Correspondent; traveled alongside soldiers and was killed in April 1945 by a sniper; Pulitzer Prize
fired by Clear Chennel Communications channel as a result of the Janet Jackson incident for indecency and taste; later signed to Sirius satellite radio and had success with his raunchy shows
Bubba the Love Sponge
also fired by Clear Communications channel, weird shows about weird things and topics. Very vulgar and indecent
former FCC Chairman went to school with Obama
first major war reporter and influenced Florence Nightingale's nursing aids as well as informed the public of how war really treated troops badly; not a great reporter and Queen Victoria was not happy with him
wrote a book called Bias criticizing Dan Rather and eastern news reports. His book became foothold for people thinking that bias is inherent in a lot of media
amazing tennis player for the US that was outed for having AIDS by USA today; he contracted HIV while receiving blood for a heart transplant and his daughter was not yet told that he had AIDS
identified author of "Skanks in NYC" on blog; claimed she was going to sue Google but never filed papers
article written about her "Skanks in NYC" on blog; sued Google and demanded she know name of blogger, court ruled she had right to know; Google disclosed the information and then she sued the identified blogger Port for 3 million
sent to jail because she refused to testify claiming reporter privilege
husband of Valerie Plame
CIA Cooperative that Judith Miller refused to testify
TIME MAGAZINE; wrote about Valerie Plame being CIA operative from unnamed White House sources, then his sources with his editors at Time; very controversial decision and left Time after this
first to identify Valerie Plame as a CIA operative; said leaking of her name was for his critical report of Bush, believed to have testified because never threatened with jail
testified to taking sterorid even though he didn't know they were steroids at the time
Wen Ho Lee
charged with theft of US nuclear secrets but was quickly charged with minor charge because no proof; Times along with other news organizations settled against government to "protect their journalists from testifying about their sources" in reporting charges against Lee; basically government covered them for their mistakes
the celebrity (entertainer) who was offended by Torre's source
refused to disclose the source of unfavorable comment towards Garland; received 10 days in jail and did not regret it because she wanted to keep confidentiality
convicted of murdering husband and sentenced to death . photographed on electric chair
CEO of NewsCorp which owns FOX
big in silent film era for comedy. Accused of death of Virginia Rappe. Not actually guilty but his career was ruined
Griswold v. Connecticut
court ruled that it was ridiculous to search for contraceptives; about PRIVACY; first time Supreme Court ruled for privacy
Roe v. Wade
legalized abortion; not only for saving woman's life, but for woman's choice; 14th amendment
Zacchini v. Scripps Howard
news media is not made immune to civil liability when broadcasting performer's act without his or her consent; abnormal man from circus was reported on, his image was misappropriated- not news coverage but a simple feature story
Bartnicki v. Vopper
radio station played tape illegally obtained, but radio station was not held liable because the radio station was not the one that actually got the recording; they received it
Time v. Hill
ruled in favor of Time; deals with privacy and false lights: family's story was taken and written for as a play then portrayed as real. convicts were actually nice
Branzburg v Hayes
news reporters are ruled not protected by first amendment to have reporter privilege
Garland v Torre
Garland is a celebrity and Torree wrote in a column that unnamed CBS anchor said unfavorable comments about Garland; Garland demanded the source, Torree refused and had to spend 10 days in jail but wanted to defend her confidentiality so didn't regret it
What are four main theories of the press?
1) authoritarian- licensing is involved
2) libertarian-government will interfere very little
3) soviet totalitarian-government and state owns it
4) social responsibility-obligation to be fair
What are four types of privacy invasion and the simple definition of each?
1) disclosure of private or embarrassing facts
2) intrusion (electrical/mechanical device used in eavesdropping)
3) trespass (encroachment on physical space
4) misappropriation of image- use images in unintended wats
5) false lights- painting someone out to be someone they are not, in heroistic ways
What is the definition of plagiarism?
Plagiarism: literary burglary; passing of someone's work and claiming it as your own
What are the two main questions to be asked in photo ethics?
1) is anything legally or ethically wrong about taking the photo?
2) if the photo was taken, how are you going to use it and is it proper? Be sensitive to issues of violence, decency, and taste
individuality is a product of community, not all single individuals and developing a consensus where everyone's rights will be protected
Rawls' theory of Justice
counter to utilitarianism; veil of ignorance, protects everyone
What is the essence of the First Amendment made clear by Times v. Sullivan?
Hate speech is protected; freedom of speech in debate on public issues including criticisms of the government and public officials
What are three significant reasons the AOL Time Warner merger was such a failure?
1. AOL was overvalued
2. Duplicate services- roadrunner cable was already provided for both
3. Clash of old and new media companies. Time Warner- new AOL was overvalued
AOL-wanted more significance in road runner cable
What is meant by fragmentation of the television audience and what is the main importance for the three legacy television networks?
-more channels lead to less concentration in single networks
-3 legacy net works lose control of primetime agenda and news
What are knowledge groups?
Knowledge communities/groups; the idea that knowledge of the community and a community of knowledge is greater than any one individual's knowledge of the community or their own community of knowledge
What is the importance of convergence media according to Henry Jenkins of MIT?
Henry Jenkins of MIT says: we are in transition for media convergence on how the public views their relationship to media and how businesses must change because old rules are open to change. This is not necessarily a good thing as the focus of converging media is no longer to empower the public but rather economic calculations. media is changing from a top down corporate media and bottom up participatory culture
When did newspaper penetration peak? Who is the publisher of the largest magazine by the circulation in the United States?
Newspaper penetration peaked n the 1950s. AARP The Magazine
What is the TARES test and how is it used to evaluate advertising?
A: authenticity- is there a legitimate need for the product/service in society
R: respect- to both the public and the consumer
E: equity- is there an equal relationship between the provider of the product and the public?
S: social responsibility- is is responsible way to make profit? would anyone be harmed by the product?
What are the No 1 and No 2 top criticisms of advertising?
1. creates an appetite for something not needed
2. raises the price of goods and services of what it would normally be
What types of advertising tend to have harmful effects on children and what are some of those effects?
Joe camel and Flinstone cigarette ads. encouraging kids to use tobacco
What did the embedded journalists miss in Iraq?
1. WMD coverage was not correct
2. too focused on microcosms and missed the big picture of the war. (political input)
3. no one foresaw the insurgence (revolt) of Iraqi struggle
Why did the New York Times issue its extraordinary apology to readers in 2004?
Judith Miller; didn't check sources enough and had terrible coverage of the Iraqi war
Why was the FCC established?
The FCC was originally established for radio licensing because there were too many radio programs; bigger ones overshadowed the smaller ones
what were the controversial changes in ownership rules proposed in 2003?
1. continuation of loosening of radio restrictions
2. maximum a national network company could reach is 45%, 10% up from the previous increase; controversial so later changed to 39%, CBS currently holds this position
3. A company can not own a major TV and newspaper in the same market; limiting so you can't have one major voice in the market because different opinions are needed
What was the Production Code, and what replaced it in 1968?
The production Code aka Hays Cade spelled out what was acceptable and unacceptable for film produced for a public audience
-MPAA film rating system replaced Production Code in 1968
What were at least 3 flaws found by a special committee in the CBS News Broadcast on President Bush and his National Guard record in 2004?
1. failure to obtain authentication of documents from document examiners
2. failure to examine the controversial background of Lt. Col. Bill Burkett
3. false statement on Sept 8 broadcast that said a document expert had authenticated the documents
What are four documented effects on children who are exposed to television violence?
1. more aggressive towards other children
2. less sensitive to pain and suffering of others
3. more frightened of the world around them
4. even cartoon violence can have effects
What is the definition of reporter privilege? What is the three-prong test for overcoming the privilege?
1. reporter privilege: privilege to withhold identity of
2. three-prong test:
1. journalist must have relevant information
2. information must go to the heart of a claim before the court
3. information must not be available by any other source