56 terms

AP US Period 7 (1890-1945)

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Spanish American War
In 1898, a conflict between the United States and Spain, in which the U.S. supported the Cubans' fight for independence. As a result, the US acquired Guam, the Philippines, and Puerto Rico.
Filipino War
1899-1903 conflict in which the U.S. fought to keep the Philippine islands from becoming independent after Admiral Dewey destroyed the Spanish fleet on his attack on Manila at the outbreak of the Spanish American War.
Treaty of Paris, 1898
The treaty that concluded the Spanish American War, Commissioners from the U.S. were sent to Paris on October 1, 1898 to produce a treaty that would bring an end to the war with Spain after six months of hostility. From the treaty America got Guam, Puerto Rico and they paid 20 million dollars for the Philippines. Cuba was freed from Spain.
Open Door Policy, 1899
A policy proposed by the US in 1899, under which ALL nations would have equal opportunities to trade in China.
William McKinley
25th president responsible for Spanish-American War, Philippine-American War, and the Annexation of Hawaii, imperialism. Is assassinated by an anarchist and Teddy Roosevelt becomes president.
"Souls of Black Folks"
A book of essay's written by W. E. B. DuBois to challenge Booker T. Washington's views on race relations in US. In 1905, Du Bois founded the Niagara Movement as an organized response to Booker T. Washington's policies of accommodation and conciliation. The Niagara Movement aimed to counteract Washington's influence over the black community and in its manifesto declared its intention to "claim for ourselves every single right that belongs to a freeborn American, political, civil and social."
W. E. B. DuBois
Founded NAACP and argued that African Americans should press for tan immediate end to segregation and economic and political justice; urged for the talented tenth to take the lead. He created the Niagara Movement that paved the way for the Harlem Renaissance.
National Child Labor Committee, 1904
One of the main issues addressed by the Progressive Movement was labor conditions, especially for children. Muckracking journalism and action from social and labor activists led to the formation of the National Labor Committee in 1904. As part of their charge, the committee investigated labor conditions around the nation. Photos of the investigation by the famed photographer Lewis W. Hine are in the collection of the Library of Congress. The first real effective child labor legislation was passed more than thirty years later during the New Deal.
Panama Canal
American construction began on the Panama Canal. It took ten years and $352 million dollars to complete. The canal opened in 1914. During the building of the canal, begun under the French in 1879, more than 26,000 workers, many West Indian, died from construction accidents and yellow fever and other diseases.
Roosevelt Corollary
President Roosevelt announced the Roosevelt Corollary, which extended the Monroe Doctrine and asserted the right of the United States to police the Caribbean.
Great Migration (1905-1930)
In the first decades of the twentieth century, African Americans left, in greater and greater numbers, the southern states where they had been subject to economic abuses and outright intimidation. The Great Migration, in which about half a million African Americans moved to the urban North from the rural South, began about 1905 and ended around 1930.
The "Jungle"
This 1906 work by Upton Sinclair pointed out the abuses of the meat packing industry. The book led to the passage of the 1906 Meat Inspection Act and Pure Food and Drug Act.
Triangle Shirtwaist Factory
March 1911 fire in New York factory that trapped young women workers inside locked exit doors; nearly 50 ended up jumping to their death; while 100 died inside the factory; led to the establishment of many factory reforms, including increasing safety precautions for workers.
Titanic Sinks 1911
A tragic disaster, mans' stupidity, thought they built an unsinkable ship, but metallurgy allowed the bolts to pop out, inadequate life boats for the poorer and middle classes on board. Demonstrated the wide gap between rich and poor.
Woodrow Wilson
1912, 28th president of the United States, known for World War I leadership, created Federal Reserve, Federal Trade Commission, Clayton Antitrust Act, progressive income tax, lower tariffs, women's suffrage (reluctantly), Treaty of Versailles, sought 14 points post-war plan, League of Nations (but failed to win U.S. ratification), won Nobel Peace Prize
Imperialism
A policy of extending a country's power and influence through diplomacy or military force.
Alfred T Mahan
Author who argued in 1890 that the economic future of the United States rested on new overseas markets protected by a larger navy. Wrote "The Influence of Sea Power Upon History"
Yellow journalists
Journalists who wrote overly sensational articles to sell newspapers
Cuban Rebellion
This was the revolution during the Spanish American war in which Cuba wanted independence from Spain, however Spain would not grant it. Thus, America intervened, and due to the rising tensions, the Spanish American war started.
"Remember the Maine"
A slogan of the Spanish-American war referring to the sinking of a battleship in Cuba. Stirred up by yellow journalism, this lead McKinley to declare war.
Battle of San Juan Hill
July 1, 1898-One of the most important battles of the Spanish-American War. Roosevelt, the Rough Riders and Pershing's Buffalo Soldiers defeated Spanish on Kettle and San Juan Hill.
Admiral Dewey
Destroyed the Spanish fleet in the Pacific during the SPAM war.
Submarine warfare
Used during World War I mainly between German U-Boats and Atlantic supply convoys for Great Britain
Lusitania
A British passenger ship that was sunk by a German U-Boat on May 7, 1915. 128 Americans died. The sinking greatly turned American opinion against the Germans, helping the move towards entering the war.
Zimmerman Telegram
March 1917. Sent from German Foreign Secretary, addressed to German minister in Mexico City. Mexico should attack the US if US goes to war with Germany (needed that advantage due to Mexico's proximity to the US). In return, Germany would give back Tex, NM, Arizona etc to Mexico.
Liberty Bonds
Where people bought bonds so the government could get that money now for war. The bonds increased in interest over time.
Rationing
A limited portion or allowance of food or goods; limitation of use
Victory gardens
Backyard gardens; Americans were encouraged to grow their own vegetables to support the war effort
War Industries Board
Agency established during WWI to increase efficiency & discourage waste in war-related industries.
Espionage and Sedition Act
Two laws enacted to impose harsh penalties on anyone interfering with or speaking against U.S participation in WW1
Eugene Debs
Leader of the American Railway Union, he voted to aid workers in the Pullman strike. He was jailed for six months for disobeying a court order after the strike was over.
Fourteen Points
The war aims outlined by President Wilson in 1918, which he believed would promote lasting peace; called for self-determination, freedom of the seas, free trade, end to secret agreements, reduction of arms and a league of nations.
League of Nations
A world organization established in 1920 to promote international cooperation and peace. It was first proposed in 1918 by President Woodrow Wilson, although the United States never joined the League. Essentially powerless, it was officially dissolved in 1946.
Treaty of Versailles
(WWI) 1918, Created by the leaders victorious allies Nations: France, Britain, US, and signed by Germany to help stop WWI. The treaty 1) stripped Germany of all Army, Navy, Air Force. 2) Germany had to pay war damages(33 billion) 3) Germany had to acknowledge guilt for causing WWI 4) Germany could not manufacture any weapons. Partitioned lands to Britain & France in the mandate system breaking up the Ottoman Empire.
Red Scare
A social/political movement designed to prevent a socialist/communist/radical movement in this country by finding "radicals," incarcerating them, deporting them, and subverting their activities
Sacco & Vanzetti
A controversial trial in 1920 charging two Italian anarchist immigrants with the robbing of a shoe factory and the killing of two men within, with the two men arrested several weeks later. Massive protests resulted with the overall opinion that the men were arrested because they were radical immigrants, and while appeals continued to be raised, they were sentenced to death in 1927.
Immigration Quota Act of 1924
This was passed in 1924 replaced the Quota Act of 1921, cutting quotas for foreigners from 3% to 2%. Different countries were only allowed to send an allotted number of its citizens to America every year.
18th Amendment
Prohibited the manufacture, sale, and distribution of alcoholic beverages
19th Amendment
Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (1920) extended the right to vote to women in federal or state elections.
Harlem Renaissance
Black literary and artistic movement centered in Harlem that lasted from the 1920s into the early 1930s that both celebrated and lamented black life in America; Langston Hughes, Louis Armstrong, & rise of jazz and the blues.
Great Depression
Starting with collapse of the US stock market in 1929, period of worldwide economic stagnation and depression. Heavy borrowing by European nations from USA during WW1 contributed to instability in European economies. Sharp declines in income and production as buying and selling slowed down. Widespread unemployment, countries raised tariffs to protect their industries. America stopped investing in Europe. Lead to loss of confidence that economies were self adjusting, HH was blamed for it
Hoovervilles
Depression shantytowns, named after the president whom many blamed for their financial distress
Causes of Great Depression
Unemployment rising, the dustbowl, overproduction of everything, layoffs, buying on credit, over-speculation
Dust Bowl
Region of the Great Plains that experienced a drought in 1930 lasting for a decade, leaving many farmers without work or substantial wages.
Herbert Hoover
(1929-1933) The New York Stock Market Crashes October 29, 1929 "Black Tuesday".
Black Tuesday
October 29, 1929; date of the worst stock-market crash in American history and beginning of the Great Depression.
Hoover Dam
Dam on the Colorado River that was built during the Great Depression
New Deal
A series of reforms enacted by the Franklin Roosevelt administration between 1933 and 1942 with the goal of ending the Great Depression.
Alphabet Agencies
In 1933 President Franklin D. Roosevelt launched his New Deal to deal with the Great Depression. The administrative style was to create new agencies. Some were set up by Congress (such as TVA) and others by Roosevelt's Executive Order (such as WPA). The agencies were also referred to as "alphabet soup". FIB, CIA, EPA, etc.
Social Security
(FDR) 1935, guaranteed retirement payments for enrolled workers beginning at age 65; set up federal-state system of unemployment insurance and care for dependent mothers and children, the handicapped, and public health
Tennessee Valley Authority
A relief, recovery, and reform effort that gave 2.5 million poor citizens jobs and land. It brought cheap electric power, low-cost housing, cheap nitrates, and the restoration of eroded soil.
Lend Lease
Legislation proposed by FDR and adopted by congress, stating that the U.S could either sell or lease arms and other equipment to any country whose security was vital to America's interest -> military equipment to help Britain war effort was shipped from U.S
Cash and Carry Policy
1939. Law passed by Congress which allowed a nation at war to purchase goods and arms in US as long as they paid cash and carried merchandise on their own ships. This benefited the Allies, because Britain was dominant naval power.
Wagner Act
1935; established National Labor Relations Board; protected the rights of most workers in the private sector to organize labor unions, to engage in collective bargaining, and to take part in strikes and other forms of concerted activity in support of their demands.
Eleanor Roosevelt
FDR's Wife and New Deal supporter. Was a great supporter of civil rights and opposed the Jim Crow laws. She also worked for birth control and better conditions for working women
Huey Long
"Kingfish" Rep. senator of LA; pushed "Share Our Wealth" program and make "Every Man a King' at the expense of the wealthy; assassinated