An agrarian-populist political party in the United States For a few years, 1892-96, it played a major role as a left-wing force in American politic Drew support from angry farmers in the West and South and operated on the left-wing of American politic Highly critical of capitalism, especially banks and railroads Allied itself with the labor movement.
the process by which a person or a group's language and/or culture come to resemble those of another group
The Gilded Age
Means something is gold covered The late 19th century, from the 1870s to about 1900. Term derived from writer Mark Twain's 1873 The Gilded Age: A Tale of Today, which satirized an era of serious social problems masked by a thin gold gilding of economic progress.
Term coined in the late 19th century to describe the idea that humans, like animals and plants, compete in a struggle for existence in which natural selection results in "survival of the fittest." Provided a justification for the enormous wealth and power wielded by industrialists in the latter half of the 19th century.
Gospel of Wealth
An essay written by Andrew Carnegie in June of 1889 that describes the responsibility of philanthropy by the new upper class of self-made rich. Promoted the idea of philanthropy
A pioneer American settlement activist/reformer, social worker, public philosopher, sociologist, author, and leader in women's suffrage and world peace. She created the first Hull House. Co-winner of 1931 Nobel Peace Prize.
Plessy v. Ferguson
1896 - Legalized segregation in publicly owned facilities on the basis of "separate but equal."
an economic system that permits unrestricted entrepreneurial business activity associated with laissez-faire capitalism
A set of companies managed by a small group known as trustees, who can prevent companies in the trust from competing with each other.
one who believes in the ownership and control of the major means of production by the whole community rather than by individuals or corporations
one who believes in fundamental change in a political, economic, or social system
the refusal by an employer to allow employees to work unless they agree to his or her terms
an organization for producing, marketing, or consuming goods in which the members share the benefits
one who believes that formal, coercive government is wrong in principle
a multi-dwelling building, often poor or overcrowded
a factory where employees are forced to work long hours under difficult conditions for meager wages
in finance, the portion of money held back from circulation by a bank or treasury, which provides backing for its notes or loans
the legalized concurrent use of two precious metals as currency at a fixed ratio of value in US History associated with the Free Silver movement
Wabash v. Illinois (1886)
Declared state-passed Granger laws that regulated interstate commerce unconstitutional.
U. S. v. E. C. Knight Co. (1895)
Due to a narrow interpretation of the Sherman Anti-Trust Act, the Court undermined the authority of the federal government to act against monopolies.
stereotypical thesis that west represented individualism, democracy, economic freedom, and starting over Turner's idea
land given by government to universities and railroad companies
1887 land given to individual Indians to discourage tribal mindset encouraged Indians to farm for a living instead of communally owning land
Bureau of Indian Affairs
designed to assimilate Native Americans (children particularly) into American culture
the idea that cattle can be grazed on large tracts of public and/or private property invention of barbed wire ended this idea and drove many small cattle ranches out of business and off their small plots of land
Strategy to maximize profits by attempting to own every step of the manufacturing process (ex. Carnegie Steel)
Strategy to maximize profits by attempting to purchase competing companies in the same industry; monopoly-building (ex. Rockefeller's Standard Oil)
Knights of Labor
American labor organization in the 1880s led by Terence V. Powderly. Organized a wide range of workers, including skilled and unskilled, and had broad reform goals.
1886 Labor dispute in Chicago that ended with a bomb being thrown at police resulting in many deaths. Led to an unfavorable public opinion of organized labor especially the Knights of Labor
American Federation of Labor (AFL)
An organization of various trade unions that fought for specific reforms Wanted better wages, fewer hours, better working conditions Founded by Samuel Gompers
Homestead Steel Strikes
Violent labor conflict in Carnegie's mills Henry Frick (manager) announced pay cut Strike had to be put down by state militia
movement of people from rural communities and settlements to big cities
immigrants from southern and eastern Europe such as Poland, Italy, etc. that arrived in the US during & after the 1880s
Chinese Exclusion Act
First law limiting immigration based on race; effectively stopped immigration from China through the end of WWII.
Unofficial political organization that works to win elections in order to exercise power Sometimes referred to as a shadow government Rose to power in the late 1800s because of ill-equipped local governments that failed to meet the needs of growing urban populations
Political machine of New York City that was well-known for its corruption Lead by William Boss Tweed
Pendelton Civil Service Act, 1883
Standardized an exam for federal employees so that people were awarded jobs on merit rather than political affiliations Made it illegal to remove federal employees without just cause.
Sherman Antitrust Act
Outlawed monopolistic business practices not effective initially without a strong progressive federal government that would enforce it.
Grange Movement and Farmers Alliance
Grassroots movements that attempted to address the plight of farmers in the late 1800s; attempted to regulate railroads and enlarge opportunity for credit evolved into Populist movement.
William Jennings Bryan
Democratic presidential hopeful that was a member of the Populist Party free silver advocate "Do not crucify mankind on a cross of gold".
Seward's Folly or Seward's Ice Box
Secretary of State William Seward's negotiation of the purchase of Alaska from Russia in 1867. At the time everyone thought this was a mistake to buy Alaska the "ice box" but it turned out to be the biggest bargain since the Louisiana purchase.
Susan B. Anthony
Social reformer who campaigned for women's rights, the temperance, and was an abolitionist, helped form the National Woman Suffrage Association.
This was an economic philosophy begun by Adam Smith in his book, Wealth of Nations, that stated that business and the economy would run best with no interference from the government. This economic thought dominated most of the time period of the Industrial Revolution.
After the Civil War, southerners promoted a new vision for a self-sufficient southern economy built on modern capitalist values, industrial growth, and improved transportation. In reality, this growth was fairly slow.
Process of assimilating immigrants into American culture by teaching English, American history, and citizenship.
Interstate Commerce Act
1887 Created the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) to regulate railroads to be fairer to farmers First legislation to regulate corporations Ineffective because government failed to enforce it.
A Scottish-born American industrialist and philanthropist who founded the Carnegie Steel Company in 1892. By 1901, his company dominated the American steel industry. Great philanthropist
Railroad that would cross the continent and connect the East to the West Opened new markets and helped spur the Industrial Revolution Completed in 1869 at Promontory, UT
Late 19th-century movement Protestant movement preaching that all true Christians should be concerned with the plight of immigrants and other poor residents of American cities and should financially support efforts to improve lives of these poor urban dwellers. Settlement houses were often financed by funds raised by ministers of this movement.
John D. Rockefeller's company that gained a monopoly over the world petroleum market with the practice of trusts and swift elimination of competition. By 1890, owned 90% of the US oil market
A steel producing company created by Andrew Carnegie to manage business at his steel mills in the Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania area in the late 19th century Significance: had a monopoly in the steel industry. vertical integrations.
John D. Rockefeller
Wealthy owner of Standard Oil Company. Considered to be a robber baron who used ruthless tactics to eliminate other businesses. Built trusts and used money to influence government.
Central Pacific Railroad
Started in CA & pushed eastward Eventually connected with the Union Pacific RR in Promontory Point, UT Hired Chinese laborers to complete the work
Union Pacific Railroad
RR that started in Omaha, NE Connected with Central Pacific RR in Promontory Point, UT Hired inexpensive Irish laborers
Wyoming & women's suffrage
WY was the 1st state to provide women the right to vote in 1870 Sometimes referred to as the "Land of Freedom"
Immigrants who had come to the US before the 1880s Mainly from England and Northern Europe
Yellowstone National Park
Established in 1872 by US Congress 1st national park
Panic of 1873
Financial panic in which banks closed and the stock market crashed
Largest steel company of the US Created by JP Morgan by merging with Carnegie Steel Largest corporation in existence at the time
Way to manufacture steel quickly & cheaply
Battle of Little Bighorn
1876- Indian leaders Sitting Bull & Crazy Horse defeated Gen. Custer & his troops
Nez Perce War
Conflict between the Nez Perce & the US gov't Chief Joseph finally agrees to surrender & relocate to reservation
Great Railway Strike of 1877
RR workers initiated a strike in 1877 when they were told there would be a pay cut
A Century of Dishonor
Written by Helen Hunt Jackson Exposed mistreatment of Native Americans by US gov't & settlers
Banker that controlled 2/3 of RRs and eventually merged with Carnegie's steel company Formed US Steel Considered a robber baron
Captains of Industry
Owners & mangers of large industrial enterprises who wielded great political & economic power More positive term in contrast to "robber barons"
Refers to industrialists or big business owners who gained huge profits by paying employees low wages Drove competition out of business by selling goods much cheaper
Settlement home designed as a welfare agency for needy family Provided social & education opportunities for working class Worked to improve conditions caused by poverty Est. by Jane Addams in Chicago
Danish immigrant Report who pointed out terrible conditions of tenement houses Author of How the Other Half Lives (1890)
1890 Last Native American battle 300 Native killed by US military
Immigration processing center in NY Harbor
Pullman RR car announced pay cut American Railway Union boycotts the use of the Pullman cars US mail failed to be delivered US gov't sent injunction to end boycott SCOTUS ruled injunction was constitutional
Gave settlers 160 acres of land if they lived on the land for 6 months and cultivated crops