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Last Government Test!!!


set of rules and standards by which a society governs itself

constitutional law

law that involves the interpretation and application of U.S. and state constitutions


written law by the legislative branch



statutory law

aw that is written down so that everyone might know and understand it

administrative law

law that spells out the authority, procedures, rules, and regulations to be followed by the government

common law

law made by judges in the process of resolving individual cases


system of rules by which disputes are resolved on the grounds of fairness

due process

principle in the 14th amendment clause stating that no state can deprive a person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law

substantive due process

certain rights of individuals in the application of laws; some that are specified in the Constitution (like free speech) and some that are not specified (like the privacy in making personal decisions)

procedural due process

principle that prohibits arbitrary enforcement of the law, and also provides safeguards to ensure that constitutional and statutory rights are protected by law enfocement

adversary system

judicial system in which opposing lawyers present their strongest cases

presumed innocence

the presumption that a person is innocent until proven guilty

civil law

one relating to disputes among two or more individuals or an individual and the government


set of voluntary promises, enforceable by the law, between two or more parties

expressed contract

contract in which the terms are specifically stated, usually in writing

implied contract

contract in which the terms are not expressly stated but can be inferred from the actions of the people involved and the circumstances

real property

land and whatever is attached or growing on it

personal property

movable belongings such as clothes and jewelry as well as intangible items like stocks, bonds, copyrights, and patents


loan taken out to pay for a house


wrongful act, other than breach of contract, for which an injured party has the right to sue


person who brings charges in court


person against whom a civil or criminal suit is brought in court


order that will stop a particular action or enforce a rule or regulation


legal document filed with the court that has jurisdiction over the problem


official notice of a lawsuit that includes the date, time, and place of the initial court appearance


formal response by a defendant to the charges in a complaint


process when both sides prepare for a trial by gathering evidence to support their case


process in which each side is given the opportunity to explain its side of the dispute and must listen to the other side


written statement to prove statements of fact signed by a witness under oath

criminal law

one that defines crimes and provides for their punishment

criminal justice system

system of state and federal courts, police, and prisons that enforces criminal law

petty offense

minor crime, usually punished by a ticket rather than being arrested


minor crime, usually punished by a fine or jail sentence of less than one year


major crime

arrest warrant

order signed by a judge naming the individual to be arrested for a specific crime

grand jury

group that hears charges against a suspect and decides whether there is suffiecient evidence to bring the person to trial


formal charge by a grand jury


sworn statement by the prosecution that there is sufficient evidence for a trial

plea bargaining

process in which a defendant pleads guilty to a lesser crime than the one with which the defendant was originally charged


group of citizens who hear evidence during a trial and give a verdict



hung jury

jury that is unable to reach a decision


punishment to be imposed on an offender after a guilty verdict

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