Intro to Psych Final
Terms in this set (112)
Part of brain involved with experiencing emotions.
Sections of the brain thought to be the center of emotion, memory, and the autonomic nervous system.
A gland in the neck that secretes hormones regulating growth and development through the rate of metabolism.
Controls the flow of messages between the brain and the rest of the body.
A compound that occurs throughout the nervous system, in which it functions as a neurotransmitter.
The chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. Its principal role is reducing neuronal excitability throughout the nervous system.
Nuerotransmitter that controls happiness.
Any of a group of hormones secreted within the brain and nervous system and having a number of physiological functions.
Maslow heirarchy of needs
Maslow's hierarchy of needs is a description of the needs that motivate human behavior. Proposed five different kinds of human needs, beginning with the most basic: survival. Physiological needs, such as food and shelter, are followed by needs related to safety.
Self-esteem reflects an individual's overall subjective emotional evaluation of his or her own worth.
Safety needs in Maslow's hierarchy refer to the need for security and protection.
The term was originally introduced by the organismic theorist Kurt Goldstein for the motive to realize one's full potential.
Belongingness is the human emotional need to be an accepted member of a group.
Parasympathetic Nervous system
Conserves energy as it slows the heart rate, increases intestinal and gland activity, and relaxes sphincter muscles in the gastrointestinal tract.
Sympathetic Nervous system
Activates what is often termed the fight or flight response.
Effect of nervousness.
When looking at someone your'e attracted to.
Effect of being nervous.
Secrete stress hormones
Adrenaline increases your heart rate, elevates your blood pressure and boosts energy supplies.
Acetylcholine high levels in Parkinsons
The action of dopamine is opposed by another neurotransmitter called acetylcholine.
High levels of epinephrine or norepinephrine play role in anger and fear
Strong emotions such as fear or anger cause epinephrine to be released into the bloodstream, which causes an increase in heart rate, muscle strength, blood pressure, and sugar metabolism.
Emotions and body response are not related
A Psychophysiological Approach is an introduction to the principles of psychophysiology as they relate to bodily responses and emotions. The emphasis is on the study of human subjects and on those bodily responses.
Relating to biology or living organisms.
Relating to or supporting the principles of free will and self growth
An approach to psychology that emphasizes systematic study of the psychological forces that underlie human behavior, feelings, and emotions and how they might relate to early experience.
Relating to thought and mental processes
Stability versus change
Deals with the issue of whether or not personality traits present during present during infancy endure throughout the lifespan.
Nature versus Nurture
Concerned with the extent to which particular aspects of behavior are a product of either inherited (i.e., genetic) or acquired (i.e., learned) characteristics.
Rationality versus irrationality
A behavior is rational when it means something to humans. If no meaning is attached, then it is irrational.
Cognitive versus learning
Learning style theory, proposes the author, investigates the process and product of learning to understand the interactions within the learning environment. Cognitive personality type, therefore, is a classification of learning style theory.
She designed the strange situation procedure to observe early emotional attachment between a child and its primary caregiver.
Discovery of classical conditioning. During his studies on the digestive systems of dogs, Pavlov noted that the animals salivated naturally upon the presentation of food.
Social learning theory, the concept of self-efficacy, and his famous Bobo doll experiments.
promoted a change in psychology through his address Psychology as the Behaviorist Views it and that observable behavior is the only thing to study
Recognized as one of the most influential and authoritative thinkers of the twentieth century. He was an Austrian neurologist and the co-founder of the psychoanalytic school of psychology.
Looked for a more objective and measured way to study behavior. He developed what he called an operant conditioning apparatus to do this, which became better known as the Skinner box.
The Stanford Prison Experiment was a landmark psychological study of the human response to captivity, in particular, to the real world circumstances of prison life.
Best known for his controversial experiment on obedience conducted in the 1960s during his professorship at Yale.
A method of learning that occurs through rewards and punishments for behavior.
A learning process that occurs when two stimuli are repeatedly paired; a response that is at first elicited by the second stimulus is eventually elicited by the first stimulus alone.
Immediate Reinforcement: Delayed Reinforcement
If any reinforcer is presented immediately, such reinforcers are called Immediate reinforcers
Unconditioned response; Conditioned response
An unconditioned response is behavior that occurs naturally due to a given stimulus. However, a stimulus prompts a conditioned response only when someone has come to associate that stimulus with another.
The opposite of generalization is discrimination. Discrimination occurs when an organism responds differently to two stimuli.
Learning is the process of acquiring new or modifying existing knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, or preferences.
Existing but not yet developed or manifest; hidden; concealed.
Involving, relating to, or emphasizing behavior.
Relating to the action or process of closely observing or watching something or someone.
A robotic lander designed to study the interior of the planet Mars.
The effects of cannabis are caused by the chemical compounds in the plant.
An intense, altered state transforms into disassociation and despair.
an enhanced sense of well-being, increased extroversion, emotional warmth, empathy toward others, and a willingness to discuss emotionally-charged.
Cocaine causes a short-lived, intense high that is immediately followed by the opposite—intense depression, edginess and a craving for more of the drug.
A dream is a succession of images, ideas, emotions, and sensations that usually occur involuntarily in the mind during certain stages of sleep
Consciousness is the state or quality of awareness, or, of being aware of an external object or something within oneself.
A state of human consciousness involving focused attention and reduced peripheral awareness and an enhanced capacity to respond to suggestion. The term may also refer to an art, skill, or act of inducing hypnosis. Wikipedia
The capacity for or process of reacting to certain stimuli selectively when several occur simultaneously.
A test or record of brain activity produced by electroencephalography.
Electrooculography is a technique for measuring the corneo-retinal standing potential that exists between the front and the back of the human eye. The resulting signal is called the electrooculogram.
Temperature while sleeping
The hypothalamus regulates body temperature between 96.8 and 100.4 degrees Fahrenheit over each 24 hour cycle. During the normal human circadian rhythm, sleep occurs when the core temperature is dropping. Sleep usually begins when the rate of temperature change and body heat loss is maximal.
A record or display of a person's heartbeat produced by electrocardiography.
Sleep Stage 1
Sleep Stage 2
Slowing heart rate an decrease in body temperature.
Sleep Stage 3
Almost deep sleep
Sleep Stage 4
REM occurs every
90-120 minutes of sleeping
Persistent problems falling and staying asleep.
A chronic sleep disorder that causes overwhelming daytime drowsiness.
A sleep disorder, causing feelings of terror or dread, and typically occurs during the first hours of stage 3-4 non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
Schizophrenia is caused by
Schizophrenia may be caused by a change in the level of two neurotransmitters: dopamine and serotonin.
A severe reduction in emotional expressiveness. People with depression and schizophrenia often show flat affect.
Of or in an immobile or unresponsive stupor.
Of, characterized by, or suffering from the mental condition of paranoia.
Schizophrenia affects how many people
1% of people over 18
A disorder associated with episodes of mood swings ranging from depressive lows to manic highs.
Major depressive disorder
A mental health disorder characterized by persistently depressed mood or loss of interest in activities, causing significant impairment in daily life.
A mental health disorder characterized by disregard for other people.
An extreme or irrational fear of or aversion to something.
A disorder characterized by the presence of two or more distinct personality states.
A form of mental illness that causes one or more bodily symptoms, including pain.
A person who is abnormally anxious about their health.
The combination of characteristics or qualities that form an individual's distinctive character.
Mental health is a level of psychological well-being, or an absence of mental illness.
Gratification of impulses
Optimal self-control and the longest delay to gratification can be achieved by directing attention to a competing item, especially the arousing, "hot" qualities of a competing item.
The id operates based on the pleasure principle, which demands immediate gratification of needs.
A person's sense of self-esteem or self-importance
The part of a person's mind that acts as a self-critical conscience, reflecting social standards learned from parents and teachers.
A disorder characterized by social discomfort and avoidance of interpersonal contact.
Requiring someone or something for financial, emotional, or other support.
A disorder in which a person has an inflated sense of self-importance.
An umbrella term for types of therapy that treat mental health disorders. This form of therapy seeks to identify and help change potentially self-destructive or unhealthy behaviors.
The aim of humanistic therapy is to help the client develop a stronger, healthier sense of self, as well as access and understand their feelings to help gain a sense of meaning in life.
Cognitive-behavioral therapy is a psycho-social intervention that is the most widely used evidence-based practice for improving mental health.
A system of psychological theory and therapy that aims to treat mental disorders by investigating the interaction of conscious and unconscious elements in the mind and bringing repressed fears and conflicts into the conscious mind by techniques such as dream interpretation and free association.
A particular instance of something used or analyzed in order to illustrate a thesis or principle.
The alteration of behavior by the subjects of a study due to their awareness of being observed.
Also known as the knew-it-all-along effect or creeping determinism, is the inclination, after an event has occurred, to see the event as having been predictable, despite there having been little or no objective basis for predicting it.
A beneficial effect, produced by a placebo drug or treatment, that cannot be attributed to the properties of the placebo itself, and must therefore be due to the patient's belief in that treatment.
A physical feeling or perception resulting from something that happens to or comes into contact with the body.
The magnitude or intensity that must be exceeded for a certain reaction, phenomenon, result, or condition to occur or be manifested.
The ability to see, hear, or become aware of something through the senses.
The branch of psychology that deals with the relationships between physical stimuli and mental phenomena.
The use by advertisers of images and sounds to influence consumers' responses without their being conscious of it.
Sometimes called sensory processing disorder or SPD, these issues happen because the brain has trouble organizing information from the senses.
Law of Similarity
Gestalt principle of organization holding that (other things being equal) parts of a stimulus field that are similar to each other tend to be perceived as belonging together as a unit.
A chemical substance produced and released into the environment by an animal, especially a mammal or an insect, affecting the behavior or physiology of others of its species.
Gate Control Theory
The gate control theory of pain asserts that non-painful input closes the "gates" to painful input, which prevents pain sensation from traveling to the central nervous system.
Bottom- Up processing
Psychology defines bottom-up processing as an approach wherein there is a progression from the individual elements to the whole.
One example: Rooting reflex. This reflex begins when the corner of the baby's mouth is stroked or touched.
The experience and knowledge necessary to deal with the potential difficulties or dangers of life in an urban environment.
The ability to use skills, knowledge, and experience. It does not equate to memory, but it does rely on accessing information from long-term memory.
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