29 terms

Biology Vocabulary Jett Goldberg

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Natural Selection
Some organisms will survive better than others, passing on certain traits
Variations
Differences in the physical traits of organisms
Adaptions
A feature that allows an organism to better survive in its environment
Descent with Modification
A change in gene frequency over time, beneficial traits should become more common
Genetic Drift
Random change in the frequency of alleles of a population over time
Gene flow
Movement of genes in/out of a population
Sexual Selection
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Sexual Selection
Non random mating, traits aren't necessarily good for survival fitness but without them, you can't pass on your genes at all because you can't reproduce
Fossils
The remnants of animals from the past
Transitional Fossils
Have been found that link extinct species to current species
Vestigial Organs
Structures with little or no function to the organism
Analogous Structures
Similar function, different structure
DNA and proteins
Two closely-related organisms will have similar DNA sequences
Pseudogenes
Look like genes, but no longer function, like vestigial structures but genes
Speciation
Forming of a new species by evolution from pre-existing species
Extinction
Elimination of a species
Gradual Extinction
Extinction at a slow rate
Mass extinction
Occurs when an event changes the environment suddenly
Divergent Evolution
A number of different species from one common ancestor
Convergent Evolution
When unrelated species evolve similar characteristics because they live in similar environments
Coevolution
Two organisms change in response to each other forming a specialized relationship
Sexual vs Asexual Reproduction
Sexual-Takes two organisms to make the offspring
Asexual-Process of binary fission or mitosis where one parent produces genetically identical offspring
Taxonomy
Field of Classifying organisms and assigning a universally accepted name
Kingdom
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Species
Binomial nomenclature
2 word name, always in italics, genus species
example-homosapien
Phylogeny
Evolutionary history of a species or a group of related species
Phylogenetic Tree
Diagram that biologists use to predict the evolutionary relationships of organisms
Genetic Equilibrium
When there are no changes in the allele frequencies in a population
Sexual Selection
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Natural Selection
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