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basic principles which describe electron configurations of atoms in neutral state

Hund's Rule

Every orbital in a subshell is singly occupied with one electron before any one orbital is doubly occupied, and all electrons in singly occupied orbitals have the same spin.

Pauli Exclusion Principle

(Only 2 electrons can be in an orbital and they must have opposite spins)

Valence electrons

Outermost electrons of an atom (in highest energy level). These determine the chemical properties of an element.

Aufbau principle

Electrons fill the lowest energy level subshell first before moving to the next level.


the maximum number of electrons which can occupy any p subshell


the maximum number of electrons which can occupy any d subshell


the maximum number of electrons which can occupy any f subshell

atomic number of an element

Number of protons in an atom


Atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons.


An isotope of hydrogen that contains one proton and two neutrons per atom.

the identity of an element is determined by the number of __________in the atom


a neutral atom has the same number of

electrons and protons


A bundle of energy that is released when an atom loses an electron, A bundle of light energy that is emitted as an electron in an excited state relaxes from a higher energy level to its normal, lower energy level


the maximum number of electrons which may reside in the 3rd energy level n=3


the maximum number of electrons which may reside in the 2nd energy level n=2


A region of space around the nucleus where an electron is likely to be found.

what do the designations s,p,d,f indicate

different electron orbitals within an energy level


the name of the vertical column on the modern periodic table


the horizontal rows in the modern periodic table

valence electrons

elements in the same group have the same number of _____________________

noble gas

Completely nonreactive family of nonmetals; having 8 valence e-

alkali earth metal

name for Group 2 on periodic table

alkali metals

name of Group 1 on periodic table


7 valence electrons in the outermost energy level. Very reactive


Are element with properties that fall between those of metals and nonmetals.

elements in the same group generally have________ properties


elements in the same period generally have_________ properties

different properties


A negatively charged ion


A positively charged ion

Excited state electrons lose energy when they....

move to a lower energy level...

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