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difference between government and governance

institutional and networked


power that refers to public administrator's authority to decide how to implement public policies

public administration

the device used to reconcile bureaucracy with democracy


the degree of openness that distinguishes privateness from publicness

chief executives

position that is unusually weak at the local level

Administrative Behavior

Herbert Simon's devastating critique of public administration

emphasis of the first paradigm

the existence of dichotomy between politics and administration

legislative veto

congressional repeal of an executive action taken int he course of administering a law

executive branch

early state constitution deliberately limited the power


the 7 principles of the science of administration: planning, organizing, staffing, direction, coordination, reporting, budgeting

Brownlow Commission

told us that the president needs help

Paradigm 1

the expression of the stare will, the execution of policies, a reaction of the spoils and party machines

Paradigm 2

gained in reputation, professional association, academic focus, principle of management could be applied

Paradigm 3

time of regrouping, more of an area of emphasis in political science

Paradigm 4

focus on the business of PA, attention went to comparing business and government

paradigm 5

National Association of Schools of Public affairs and Administration is formed

Paradigm 6

governance, sector blurring, government by proxy, globalization

A.H Maslow

developed the hierarchy of human needs

Gulick and Urwick

theorists that listed seven principles of the science of administration (POSDCORB)


getting people to do what you want them to do within the organization

Advantages to organizations

achieve more work together, cooperation among people and among tasks, rule, predictable, fair, division of labor

Closed system

specialization is central, responsibility is emphasized, hierarchical, interaction tends toward obedience, prestige is internalized

bureaucratic model

traditional, charismatic, and ration-legal authority

traditional authority

depends on the loyalty of individuals to someone who has become chief

charismatic authority

rests on personal devotion to an individual

rations-legal authority

legally established

Bureaucracy according to Weber

fixed and stable structure, give order, merit position, hierarchical authority, written records, management based on training

coordination through unity of command

strong executive leadership, each person with one boss with limited span of control

scalar principle

vertical division of labor across organizational levels

functional principle

horizontal division of labor

line and staff functions

line involved with producing a good or service, staff are supporting positions

administrative management

certain scientific principle exist, management is management

closed systems theorists

believe organizations only operation is substantially unaffected by its environment

open system theorists

believe organizations interact with their environment

organizational roles

fell along political dimension that distinguishes between locals and cosmopolitans

reward power

leaders ability to positively recognize another

uncertainty avoidance

extent to which a culture feels threatened by ambiguity

degree of organizational autonomy

best determinate of organizational effectiveness


data that become meaningful

cow psychology

the studies that posit groups follow their leader blindly and with out question


the addition of think and multiple layers of administrative hierarchy within public agencies

iron triangle

strong bong that exists between administrative agencies, legislative oversight committees and special interest groups

way that organization may be evaluated by society

efficiency, effectiveness and social tests

power distance

the extent to which society accepts thaw power in organization

task motivated leader

function well in both high and low control situations

Principal features of the open model

tasks occur in unstable conditions, knowledge contributes to common tasks, ends over means, conflict adjudicated with peers, responsibilities to collective, loyalty to whole, knowledge spread among members, horizontal interactions, task achievement emphasized, prestige externalized

principal features of the closed system

routine tasks, task specialization, means are emphasized, conflict adjudicated from the top,loyalty to department,responsibility is emphasized, knowledge is based at the top, interaction tend to be vertical,superordinate/subordinate relations, loyalty to superior emphasized, status determined by formal office and rank

humanist approach

condemns impersonality of bureaucratic hierarchy, believes large organizations would work better is top officials changed behavior, looks at the life of the individual worker

Humanistic approach: Roles

explain relationship between individual and the organization, roles are communicated by supervisors and coworker, expectations are influence by own values and preferences

Simon & Argyris

suggest we consider alternatives until we come to an acceptable solution, resources are limited, and we fuse the tendencies of our personalities to other organizational goals and contexts

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