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power that refers to public administrator's authority to decide how to implement public policies
congressional repeal of an executive action taken int he course of administering a law
the 7 principles of the science of administration: planning, organizing, staffing, direction, coordination, reporting, budgeting
the expression of the stare will, the execution of policies, a reaction of the spoils and party machines
gained in reputation, professional association, academic focus, principle of management could be applied
Gulick and Urwick
theorists that listed seven principles of the science of administration (POSDCORB)
Advantages to organizations
achieve more work together, cooperation among people and among tasks, rule, predictable, fair, division of labor
specialization is central, responsibility is emphasized, hierarchical, interaction tends toward obedience, prestige is internalized
Bureaucracy according to Weber
fixed and stable structure, give order, merit position, hierarchical authority, written records, management based on training
coordination through unity of command
strong executive leadership, each person with one boss with limited span of control
line and staff functions
line involved with producing a good or service, staff are supporting positions
closed systems theorists
believe organizations only operation is substantially unaffected by its environment
fell along political dimension that distinguishes between locals and cosmopolitans
the addition of think and multiple layers of administrative hierarchy within public agencies
strong bong that exists between administrative agencies, legislative oversight committees and special interest groups
Principal features of the open model
tasks occur in unstable conditions, knowledge contributes to common tasks, ends over means, conflict adjudicated with peers, responsibilities to collective, loyalty to whole, knowledge spread among members, horizontal interactions, task achievement emphasized, prestige externalized
principal features of the closed system
routine tasks, task specialization, means are emphasized, conflict adjudicated from the top,loyalty to department,responsibility is emphasized, knowledge is based at the top, interaction tend to be vertical,superordinate/subordinate relations, loyalty to superior emphasized, status determined by formal office and rank
condemns impersonality of bureaucratic hierarchy, believes large organizations would work better is top officials changed behavior, looks at the life of the individual worker
Humanistic approach: Roles
explain relationship between individual and the organization, roles are communicated by supervisors and coworker, expectations are influence by own values and preferences
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