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Scope and Methods Final
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Terms in this set (78)
written record
observational record composed of documents, reports, statistics, manuscripts and other written, oral, or visual materials
content analysis
use of the written record via systematic coding and classification of its content (turning nonquantitative data into quantitative data)
intercoder reliability
means that two or more analysts using the same procedures and definitions agree on the content categories applied to the material analyzed
running record
includes materials that are collected systematically across time
episodic records
records that are not part of a ongoing record-keeping program but are produced and preserved in a more casual, personal, and accidental manner
direct observation
researcher collects data on political behavior by observing behavior itself
indirect observation
researcher collects data on political behavior by observing some physical trace of behavior
reactivity
the effect of the data collection itself on the phenomena being measured
primary data
data recorded and used by the researcher making the observations
secondary data
data used by a researcher who did not personally collect the data
ethnography
study which aims to make cultural interpretations based on personal observation of everyday life
field study
refers to open-ended and wide-ranging observation in a natural setting like a home/office/community/country
participant observation
in which the investigator is a regular participant in the activities of the group being observed
structured observation
in which the investigator looks for and systematically record the incidence of specific behaviors
unstructured observation
in which all behavior is considered relevant and recorded
overt observation
in which those being observed are aware of the investigator's presence and intentions
covert observation
in which the investigator's presence is hidden or undisclosed/his or her intentions are disguised
erosion measure
physical trace measure created by selective wear on some material
accretion measure
physical trace measure measures a phenomenon as manifested through the deposition and accumulation of materials
informed consent
subjects are to be given information about the research including the research procedure, its purposes, risks and anticipated benefits
data matrix
arrangement of observed measurements into rows and columns
nominal measurement
variable values are unordered names or labels (ethnicity, gender, country of origin)
ordinal measurement
variable values are labels having an implicit but unspecified or measured order (scale of ideology)
interval measurement
numbers are assigned to objects so that interval differences are constant across the scale, but there is no true or meaningful zero point (temperature, intelligence scores)
ratio
in addition to having the properties of interval variables, also have a meaningful zero value (income, percentage of the population with a high school education)
frequency distribution
the number of observations per value or category of a variable
relative frequencies
proportions and percentages that help put raw frequencies into perspective
descriptive statistic
a number that describes certain characteristics or properties of a batch of numbers
dispersion
variation from statistics' central tendency
central tendency
locates the middle or center of a distribution, but in a more intuitive sense, describes a typical case
mean
average
resistant measures
measures of central tendency not sensitive to one or a few extreme values
median
value that divides a distribution in half
mode
category with the greatest frequency of observations
range
largest value of a variable minus the smallest value
interquartile range
indicates difference or distance between quartiles
variance
average/mean of squared deviations
standard deviation
the square root of the variance
normal distribution
bulk of observations lie in the center (single peak), half of observations lie above half below, mean median and mode are same numerical value, fewer and fewer observations fall in the tails of the distribution, the spread of the distribution is symmetric
negatively skewed
skewed to the left (few observations to the left)
positively skewed
skewed to the right (few observations on the right)
hypothesis testing
type of inferential activity which involves translating empirical claims into specific statements (hypotheses) which can be confirmed or disconfirmed
point and interval estimation
type of inferential activity involving estimation of unknown population parameters from samples and surrounding those estimates with confidence intervals
statistical hypotheses
2 types, null hypotheses and research/alternative hypotheses
null hypothesis
a hypothesis which states things like a pair of proportions does not differ, a numerical indicator of a relationship between two variables is zero, no effect, etc.
research/alternative hypothesis
researchers hope to reject null hypothesis in favor of this, defines relationship
type 1 error
error made by rejecting a null hypothesis when it is true
type 2 error
error made by failing to reject a null hypothesis when it is not true
statistical significance
refers to the probability of making a type 1 error
confidence level
the probability that our estimates fall within certain distances of the population parameter
confidence interval
the range of likely values associated with a given probability or confidence level
z score
the number of standard deviations by which a score deviates from the mean score
general association
the values of one variable (y) tend to be associated with specific values of the other variable (x); places no restriction on HOW the values relate
monotonic correlation
positive when high values of one variable are associated with high values of the other and low values are associated with low values; negative when high values on one variable are associated with low values on another and vice versa
linear correlation
a particular type of monotonic relationship in which plotted XY points fall on a straight line
measure of association
describes in a single number or index the kind and strength of relationship between the values of two variables
cross-tabulation
table summary which shows the joint or bivariate relationship between two categorized (nominal and/or ordinal) variables
direction of a relationship
shows which values of the independent variable are associated with which values of the dependent variable
concordant pair
pair in which one individual is higher on both variables than the other case
discordant pair
pair in which one case is lower on one of the variables but higher on the other
tied pair
in which both observations have the same value on one or both variables
proportional reduction in errors
a measure of association that indicates how much te knowledge of the value of the independent variable of a case improves prediction of the dependent variable compared to the prediction of the dependent variable based on no knowledge of the case's value on the independent variable
chi square
statistic that compares an observed result with a hypothetical table that would occur if the variables were statistically independent (measures the discrepancy between frequencies actually observed and those we would expect to see if there was no population association between the variables)
statistical independence
property of two variables where the probability that an observation is in a particular category of one variable and a particular category of the other variable equals the simple or marginal probability of being in those categories
degrees of freedom
number of rows minus 1 times the number of columns (used in chi square formulations)
effect size
difference between one mean and another
analysis of variance
a technique for measuring the relationship between one nominal or ordinal level variable and one interval or ratio level bariable
regression analysis
a toolbox of methods for describing how, how strongly, and under what conditions an independent and dependent variable are associated
regression coefficient
tells how much Y changes per unit change in X
residual
the difference between the predicted value Y and the observed value Y
correlation coefficient
a measure of the strength and direction of the linear correlation between two quantitative variables
standardized varaibles
a rescaled variable obtained by subtracting the mean from each value of the variable and dividing the result by the standard deviation
standardized regression coefficient
a coefficient that measures the effects of an independent variable on a dependent variable in standard deviation units
multivariate cross-tabulation
controls for a third variable by grouping observations according to their values on the third variable
interaction
the strength, direction and nature of an XY relationship depends on levels of the control variable
multiple regression analysis
used when dependent variable is measured at the interval or ratio level to investigate how its values are affected by two or more independent variables
regression constant
the value of Y when all the independent variables have scores or values of zero
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